From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PIROGOVA METHODS ( N. I. Pirogov , the domestic surgeon and the anatomist, 1810 — 1881) — methods of production of anatomic drugs from previously frozen corpses in the form of the cuts of various thickness which are carried out through the frozen corpse in various planes (a method of cuts) and «an ice sculpture» («sculptural anatomy»). N. I. 11 and horn in 1851 are offered. These methods gave the chance to present the valid relationship of bodies and fabrics and were the significant contribution to development topographical anatomy (see).

Fig. 1. Cross cut of a body at the level of XII of a chest vertebra across Pirogov: 1 — a diaphragm and a cross muscle of a stomach, 2 — a head of a pancreas, 3 — a portal vein, 4 — the general bilious channel, 5 — the descending part of a duodenum, 6 — the lower vena cava, 7 — a liver and a gall bladder, 8 - the Body of the XII chest vertebra, 9 — the XII edge, 10 — a ventral aorta, 11 — a left kidney and an adrenal gland, 12 — a spleen, 13 — a tail of a pancreas, 14 — loops of a small bowel, 15 — the descending colon, 16 — a cross colon, 17 — the ascending colon.

Guzzle cuts of the corpses frozen to temperature not above — 15 °, make in the chosen plane a metacarpal saw. After sawing off of layer of the necessary thickness (nearly not less than 1 cm) the cut is washed with a brush in a cold water for removal of fat. The received cut is fixed further and mounted. In modern modifications similar lamellar drugs are concluded in plastic (see. Drugs anatomic ). They are applied to studying of interposition of bodies in a plane projection (fig. 1).

Fig. 2. The Topografo-anatomichesky relationship of a liver, heart, stomach, the left bend of a colon shown by method of sculptural anatomy across Pirogov: 1, 2, 3,4,5 — costal cartilages of the III—VII edges, 6 — a liver, 7 — heart, 8 — the left bend of a colon, 9 — a stomach (the diaphragm, lungs, a front abdominal wall are removed).

At production of drugs by method of «sculptural anatomy» consistently delete with a chisel the frozen fabrics, leaving those bodies, to-rye it is necessary to show. These drugs are used for studying of volume ratios of bodies (fig. 2).

Using the specified methods, N. I. Pirogov prepared and published the atlas of «Anatome topographica sectionibus per corpus humanum congelatum triplici directione ductis illustrata» (1852 — 1859). The description of a method of cuts was published by H. I. Pirogov under the name «Anatomy of Cuts» (Domestic notes, 1860).

S. S. Mikhaylov.