PINEL Philipp (Pinel Philippe, 1745 — 1826) — the French doctor, the founder of public, clinical and scientific psychiatry in France; member of the French academy (1803).
Ended physical. - a mat. f-t Toulouse un-that (1774), then medical f-t un-that in Montpellier. Since 1778 worked in Paris as the psychiatrist in a private clinic, at the same time edited «The magazine of health» (1784 — 1789) where published a number of articles on hygiene and psychiatry, including the works devoted to contents in to lay down. institutions and to treatment of mentally sick. Professor since 1794; managed department of internal diseases and psychiatry in the Parisian Ecle de Sante (1795 — 1822). Since 1793 hl. the doctor psychiatric-tsy Bisetr, and since 1794 —-tsy Salpetriyer where it continued the reorganization of contents and treatment of mentally sick begun in Bisetre.
The reform of stationary contents and treatment of mentally sick which is carried out by F. Pinel was prepared by the social and political events preceding the Great French revolution and caused by the possibility of progressive transformations which arose during the revolution. At that time an arbitrariness and cruelty reigned in the treatment of the patients who were in state psychiatric-tsakh. Years and even decades they were supported in the conditions deprived elementary a gigabyte. conveniences, it is frequent together with criminals. The main measure of fight against excitement was the zakovyvaniye in the chains attached to walls. T. Pinel removed chains from the insane, created for them in hospital human living conditions, developed system of their contents thanks to which psychiatric could become the same medical institutions what would be somatic. Thanks to F. Pinel and his pupil of X. To Eskirol «for the first time in the history mentally patients were recovered in their human and civil rights» (B. by Morelm). An opportunity to see the sincere diseases which are not distorted by attending circumstances allowed F. Pinel to begin their systematic studying based on long observation and improvement of the analysis of the observed facts, to describe manifestations most often of the found psychopathological states and to give their classification. It for the first time planned the main directions in studying of a pathogeny of sincere diseases — value of heredity, the constitution, a sex, age, various external factors is shown. Its «The medico-philosophical treatise about a mental disorder» and «A philosophical nozografiya» were in France in the first decades of 19 century the most popular guides to psychiatry. F. Pinel's influence on its development in 19 century in France and beyond its limits is so big that it is accepted to speak about Pinel's era in psychiatry.
Works: Nosographie philosophique, ou la methode de l’analyse appliquee b la medecine, 1st prod., P., 1798, 6 prod., t. 1—3, P., 1818; Traite of m£dico-philosophique sur l’alienation mentale, P., 1809 (Russian lane, M., 1829).
Bibliography: Kannabikh Yu. V. History of psychiatry, page 149, M., 1929; Rubakin A. N. Philip Pinel and French revolution of 1789, Zhurn, neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 56, century 12, page 977, 1956; Semelagne R. Les grands alienistes franais, t. 1, p. 15, P., 1894.
H. G. Shumsky.