PHYTONCIDES (Greek phyton a plant - f-of armor. to kill with caedere) — the substances produced by plants having antimicrobic properties and which are one of factors of natural immunity of plants. Except antimicrobic action F. can have insecticidal and anthelmintic properties, and also render obshchestp.mu-lira yushchy, antiinflammatory, regeneration, antiallergic, interferonogenny and other impacts on a macroorganism.
Discovery of phytoncides by the Soviet scientific B. of II. Tokin in 1928 — 1930 led to carrying out a large number of researches of these substances in the USSR and other countries. A considerable part of researches of antimicrobic properties of the plants caused F., it is carried out taking into account data of traditional (national) medicine. Plants can have phytoncidal (antimicrobic) activity irrespective of the place of growth, climatic, ecological and other conditions. The role F is established. in relationship of organisms in a biogeocenosis (see) — to uniform system of animals, plants, microorganisms and respective site of the land surface. According to B. P. Tokin, any plant produces F. — the substances capable to suppress growth of bacteria, fungi, the elementary. Along with flying (excretory) F., the allocated elevated parts of plants in the atmosphere, podzemnsh parts to the soil, and water plants in water, in protoplasm of plants are available almost nonvolatile (not - excretory) F., to-rye it is possible to take from the live or killed cells of plants by extraction by any solvent or in a different way. Quantitative and qualitative structure F. in plants can vary depending on a stage of vegetation of a plant, klimatogeografichesky conditions, body of a plant, etc. Phytoncidal properties of a number of food plants are established (onions, garlic, horse-radish, mustard, fennel, haricot, a wild strawberry, cabbage, tomatoes, cereal cultures, a cranberry, pears, apples, a bird cherry, blackcurrant, grapes, a guelder-rose, a citrus and some other plants). From them onions and garlic, including their wild-growing types are most studied. T. contain in many forest-park (a birch, a hornbeam, an oak, laurels, a maple, a chestnut, a cypress, a box, a poplar, etc.), coniferous (a cedar, a juniper, a fir, a pine, etc.), decorative (an acacia, a jasmine, a honeysuckle, a lilac, a peony, etc.), medicinal (a St. John's Wort, mint, a yarrow, a sage, etc.) and many other plants, seaweed.
Antimicrobic range F. it is very various: their action can be shown as on pathogenic, and nonpathogenic microorganisms — bacteria (see), fungi (see Fungi parasitic), protozoa (see), viruses (see). However for everyone F. manifestation of a certain combination of antimicrobic properties is characteristic. At the same time mechanism of action F. can be various.
At different F. various physical are revealed. - chemical properties, the structure or chemical structure nek-ry F is defined. (e.g., to number of active ingredients F. garlic carry allitsin, garlitsin and various essential oils). In some cases F. it is more rational to use in the form of a complex of substances, napr, antimicrobic properties of Novoimaninum — a complex F. from the St. John's Wort which is made a hole — not less than two years remain, and giperforin — the substance emitted from this complex and causing its antimicrobic activity loses these properties during 1 — 3 days.
Flying F. more often bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses kill, i.e. possess bactericidal, fungicidal, protistotsid-ny or virulitsidny action. Nonvolatile F., as a rule, growth and development of microbes detain, without killing them, i.e. have bacteriostatic, fungistatic, protistostatichesky or virusin-gibiruyushchy effect.
Bactericidal, fungicidal, protistotsidny and virulitsidny properties flying F. widely use for ensuring purity of air that it is reached by creation of forest-park plantings in the cities and other settlements, placement of children's and hospital and sanatorium complexes in green zones, etc. It is known, e.g., that in the pine and cedar woods air is almost sterile irrespective of proximity to settlements. There is an experience of use of needles of the Siberian fir, leaves of a Labrador tea marsh and nek-ry other plants for disinfection of air of the enclosed space (children's, hospital, etc.).
T. exert various impact on macroorganisms. So, medicinal plants of antimicrobic action can possess a general promoting effect on an organism (an immortelle, a St. John's Wort, a dogrose), antiinflammatory (a sage, an eucalyptus), antiallergic (licorice), etc. Flying F. are also not indifferent for an organism: T. cowberry and a birch strengthen phagocytal processes, T. needles and a pine cause increase in the ABP, inhalation F. an oak leads to decrease in the ABP at the patients having a hypertension, etc. Ability F is experimentally proved. nek-ry plants to change a functional condition of nerve centers and peripheral nerves.
Phytoncides even in insufficiently perfect dosage forms (gruels, infusions, broths, etc.) were applied in the period of the Great Patriotic War how to lay down. means (auxiliary and the main) at wound, intestinal and other fevers. A number of the plants containing F., use in the form of galenovy and neogalenical forms — leaves of an eucalyptus, a grass of a St. John's Wort, garlic, a rhizome of a coil, a compound fruit of an alder, leaves of a sage, etc. On the basis of vegetable raw materials are developed effective to lay down. means of antimicrobic action — Novoimaninum from a grass of the St. John's Wort which is made a hole sangviritrin from a grass of a makleya, hlorofillipt from leaves of an eucalyptus ball, etc. (see. Phytoncidal drugs).
Phytoncidal properties of plants are widely used in life, naira, at house conservation (ches-
NOC, horse-radish, etc.), and antimicrobic substances from plants (sorbic to - that, plyumbagin, etc.) as preservatives in the medical and food industry (see Conservation).
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she Blighters of microbes — phytoncides, M.,
I960; about N e, Curative poisons of plants-solubrious poisons of plant, the Story about phytoncides, L., 1980, bibliogr.; Fiton
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S. A. Vichkanova.