FITOGEMAGGLYuTINYNY - the proteins of a plant origin having ability to agglutinate erythrocytes of the person and animals.
For the first time F. were found
in 1888 by H. Still-mark in seeds of Ricinus communis and are called ricin, and then are found in seeds of Abrus precatorius (abrine), Croton Tiglium (krotin) and in Robinia pseudoacacia bark (Robin).
Existence F was established. and in other plants, in seeds extracts bean — haricots, peas, lentil, Wicky, in natural latex of a dope and other representatives this. a nightshade family — in tubers of potatoes and tomatoes, in juice from leaves and stalks of different types this. a spurge family, and also at many poisonous and edible mushrooms.
T. use for definition of nek-ry antigens (see) and the cells containing these antigens. The water-salt extracts received from nek-ry plants except ability to agglutinate erythrocytes, can cause their lysis (phytohemolysins), besiege proteins (fitopre-tsipipitin) or have toxic effect (phytotoxins).
Studying F. exerted fruitful impact on development of the general immunology (see). In 1897 P. Ehrlich carried out quantitative definition of the antibodies neutralizing ricin and established their ratio necessary for completeness of reaction. In 1902 J. Danysz described a phenomenon (see J. Danysz a phenomenon), at Krom ricin in fractional doses adsorbed more antibodies, than ricin in the uniform dose which is at the same time added to immune serum. K. Landshteyner in 1902 established reversibility of reaction antigen — an antibody on the example of antibodies to abrine. Studying F. exerted a great influence on development of science about blood groups. Detection F., specific concerning group antigens (see Lectins), allowed to use them for identification of group antigens of erythrocytes of blood — A1t A2. In, A2 B, About (H), M, N. Are found F., capable to react with Tomsen's antigens, Fors-smana (see Antigens heterogeneous) and organ-specific antigens. In 1967 S. I. Krupnik and M. I. Potapov allocated from seeds bean fitopretsipitina, to-rye had organ specificity in relation to a thyroid gland. T. are characterized by mitogenic activity, are capable to induce a blastogenesis and to stimulate proliferation of the based lymphocytes. The concanavalin A (fi-togemagglyutinin) received from Concana valia ensiformis stimulates a mitogenesis of T lymphocytes (but not V-lymphocytes) that can be used for identification of subpopulation of these cells (see Yim-mu incompetent cells).
Activity F. concerning erythrocytes of different types of animals
it is not identical. Nair., erythrocytes of a Guinea pig are more sensitive to ricin, than erythrocytes of a horse and to abrine — on the contrary. The greatest interest was attracted to themselves F., contained in seeds of bean plants as they allowed to differentiate not only specific, but also intraspecific (group) antigenic distinctions. From a large number of the inspected plants this. bean in 1948 Mr. Renkonen (K. O. Renkonen) and in 1949 Mr. Boyd and Reguera (W. Page of Boyd, R. M of Reguera) allocated several types, seeds to-rykh contained the agglutinins specific to certain blood groups (see Blood groups). Except erythrocytes, T. can agglutinate leukocytes, thrombocytes, spermatozoa, cells of the fixed tissue of a liver, a mucous membrane of intestines and a cell of tumors.
T. not covalently contact the sugars and oligosaccharides (see Carbohydrates]) entering into structure of glycoproteins and glycolipids of cellular membranes as leads to agglutination of cells. At the heart of reaction of binding F. with membranes of cells hydrophobic and hydrogen forces of interattraction (less often) electrostatic lie. T. can be separated from a surface of a cell that distinguishes them from antibodies (see), at to-rykh communication with antigen stronger. The complex fitogemag-glyutinin + antigen does not fix a complement (see). Fitogemagglyuti-nina are multivalent concerning places of their linkng with sugars, than and their ability to pre-tsipitirovat polysaccharides and proteins from solutions and to give agglutination of cells speaks. Molecular weight (weight) various F. it is not identical; napr, uf., contained in soya beans, it makes apprx. 12 000. T. concerning a termostabilna (transfer heating to t ° 60 °), at t ° 80 ° their action weakens, they collapse only at t ° 100 °. Fitogemagglyu-tinina, the haricots allocated from seeds, are rather steady against effect of pepsin, trypsin and napai-on. Many from F. are good antigens. G1. Ehrlich for the first time received the antibodies neutralizing toxic properties of ricin and abrine at introduction of the last animal per os that also testified to digestive enzymes resistance of phytotoxins and ability to break their barriers went. - kish. path.
Value F. in pathology of the person is studied insufficiently. The vegetable agglutinins, lysines, iretsiiitina, toxins which came to an organism can connect to blood cells and fabrics, to damage and change them. With action F., having mitogenic activity, nek-ry researchers connect transformation of normal cells into tumoral. The hemolitic anemias resulting from the use of special grades of beans — a favism are described (see).
However the human body is not defenseless concerning F., treating poor. Contained in saliva, secrets went. - kish. a path and in blood serum of substance are capable to neutralize activity F. and to interfere with their connection with cells.
Bibliography: Jambs P. N. Izoan
of a tigena and isoantibodies of the person is normal also of pathology, M., 1974; To r at p N and to S. I. and Potapov of M. I. Organospetsificheskiye of a fitopretsipitina to a thyroid gland, Bulletin ekspery. biol. and medical, t. 64, N ° 12, page 70, 1967; Boyd W. Reguera R. M of Hemagglutinating substances for human cells in various plants, J. Immunol., v. 62, p. 333, 1949; To r ii-p e M. Blutgruppenspezifische pflanzliche Eiweisskorper (Phytagglutinine), Stuttgart, 1956, Bibliogr.; Landstei-n e r K. The specificity of serological reactions, Cambridge, 1946; M a k e 1 O. Studies in hemagglutinins of Leguminosae seeds, Helsinki, 1957; Renkonen K. O. Studies on hemagglutinins present in seeds of some representatives of family of Legu-minoseae, Ann. Med. exp. Biol., v. 26, p. 66, 1948; Stillmark H.
t)ber Ricin, ein giftiges Ferment aus den Samen von Ricinus comm. L. und einigen anderen Eupharbiaceen, Diss., Dorpat, 1888.