PHYSIOLOGY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PHYSIOLOGY (Greek physis the nature + logos the doctrine) — science about patterns of functioning of live organisms, their separate systems, bodies and fabrics. T. includes also studying of patterns of interaction of live organisms with the environment, their behavior in various conditions (ecological F.), and also on different propagation steps and development, since an embryogenesis and finishing senile age (see. Age physiology). Special science is F. plants.

T. subdivide into the general, private and applied. The general F. studies the general properties of living matter: properties of biological membranes (see Membranes biological) and separate cells (see); reactions various irritants (see), irritability (see) and excitability (see); processes of excitement (see), braking (see); features of evolutionary and age development of physiological functions (evolutionary and age F.), etc. Private F. investigates properties of separate fabrics and bodies, and also patterns of their associations in functional systems (see). Applied F. studies the general and private patterns of activity of live organisms and especially the person according to special tasks — clinical physiology, physiology of work, sport, food, aviation, space and underwater physiology, physiology of page - x. animals, etc.

It is accepted to subdivide F. also on normal and pathological. Such division is conditional. Normal F. investigates preferential patterns of life activity of a normal healthy organism, its interaction with Wednesday, mechanisms of stability and adaptation of functions to action of various rejecting factors. Pathological F. studies the changed functions of a sick organism (see the Disease), processes of compensation (see. Compensatory processes), adaptations of separate functions at various diseases (see Adaptation, Adaptation), mechanisms of recovery and rehabilitation (see. Pathological physiology). Allocate also comparative F., the cut enters tasks studying of the general and special animal organisms in functions standing on various steps of evolutionary development, specific and an ontogeny — ontogenesis (see) and phylogenesis (see) an organism. Subject of studying evolutionary F. formation fiziol is. functions in the course of evolutionary development. Special section F. — psychophysiology — it is devoted to studying of mental activity of the person and animals.

T. it is connected with anatomy (see), histology (see"), cytology (see), biochemistry (see), biophysics (see), bionics (see), biology (see), widely uses provisions, and methods of physics, chemistry, cybernetics and mathematics. Studying of evolutionary patterns happens in close contact with embryology (see). The physiology of higher nervous activity is connected with psychology and pedagogics. T. direct value for livestock production has farm animals, making a basis of development livestock specialists and veterinary science. To some extent F. is theoretical fundamentals of medicine (see); achievements F. are used for prevention and more effective treatment of diseases. The applied medicine, in turn, puts before F. new tasks. Gains the increasing development special F., studying social problems, such as a psychoemotional stress (see. An emotional stress), alcoholism (see) etc. Data F. as one of the main natural sciences are widely used by philosophy for further development of materialistic outlook.

Methods of a research. By the main method of knowledge of patterns of life activity of organisms in F. the experiment is. Majority fiziol. experiments it is carried out on animals. However any experiment conducted in simulated conditions has no absolute value, and its results cannot be unconditionally postponed for the person and animals who are under natural conditions existence.

Distinguish several forms of carrying out a physiological experiment. The acute experiment (see the Vivisection) still keeps the value, though lost that role, to-ruyu had in the past. In an acute experiment at the animals who are iod an anesthesia use the following methodical methods: make artificial isolation of bodies and fabrics, excision and artificial irritation of various bodies, assignment of biopotentials, etc.

Hron. the experiment allows to repeat repeatedly researches on one live object. In hron. an experiment use such methodical receptions as imposing of artificial fistulas (see Fistulas eksperimen taln ye), a heterogeneous anastomosis of nerves, changes of various bodies, implantation of electrodes, etc. In conditions hron. an experiment study irregular shapes of behavior for what use a technique of conditioned reflexes (see. Conditioned reflexes) or various tool techniques in combination with irritation of brain structures and registration of bioelectric activity by means of implanted electrodes (see M of calves about el e to t r about d N y y m of e of t about d researches). The increasing distribution for studying fiziol. functions telestimulation and telemetry get (see).

Clinical and functional trials are also one of forms fiziol. experiment. Special form fiziol. an experiment represent experiments on reproduction at animals patol. processes and diseases (idiopathic hypertensia, thyrotoxicosis, peptic ulcer, etc.)*. Methodical improvements in a crust changed the experimental equipment and ways of the register tsi and eksp erimental-ny data. Mechanical systems were succeeded by electronic converters. Record of results fiziol gains ground. experiments on a magnetic and perforation tape and the subsequent their processing on the electronic computer (see).

History. Formation F. historically occurred on the basis of empirical observations of researchers and doctors, openings of corpses of animals and people, and also vivisektsionny experiments, the foundation the Crimea was laid still by K. Galen.

Emergence F. as sciences it is connected with works of the English doctor U. Garvey who opened blood circulation (1628). The way for opening of a loop system of blood circulation was paved by researches of anatomists —

A. Vezaliya, M. Servet, Colombo (R. Colombo), G. Fallopiya, etc. the Ital. biologist M. Malpigi who for the first time described capillaries (see) proved correctness of ideas of existence of a loop system of blood circulation (see). The leading achievement of physiology in 17 century which defined its subsequent development on a materialistic basis was the idea of «the reflected activity of an organism» formulated by fr. scientific R. Descartes (see. Reflex theory). This opening struck the first crushing blow on idealistic ideas of mechanisms of behavior of living beings.

In 17 — 18 centuries in development F. the anatomic direction prevailed, however in connection with big achievements of chemistry and physics physical and chemical methods of a research began to be applied more and more widely. So, the ital. scientist J. Borelli used laws of mechanics for an explanation of movements of animals, the mechanism of respiratory movements, and laws of hydraulics — for studying of the movement of blood in vessels. English scientific S. Hales determined the size of blood pressure. Fr. scientist Reaumur (Pi. A. Reaumur) and the Italian scientist L. Spallanzani investigated chemism of digestion. The fr.

scientist A. Lavoisier tried to explain mechanisms of breath on the basis of chemical patterns. The ital. scientist L. Galjvani discovered «animal electricity».

The beginning of development F belongs to the first half of 18 century. in Russia. In opened in 1725. The St. Petersburg academy of Sciences the department of anatomy and physiology was approved, to-ruyu D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, J. Weitbrecht headed at different times. Extremely important for F. there were M. V. Lomonosov's researches. In particular, the idea

about the ternary nature of color sight was for the first time stated to them (see).

Leading role in development F. in Russia played medical f-t Moscow un-that, founded in 1755. Teaching bases F. together with

Ana Tomiey and other medical specialties it was begun S. G. Zybelinjsh. Opening of independent department F., to-ruyu M. I. Skia-dan and I. I. Vech headed, happened in 1776. The first dissertation on physiology was defended in 1794 by F. I. Barsu k-M oiseevy. In 1798 it was based St. Petersburg honey and to about - x and rurgichesky and to m and I

(the rena of VMA of S. M. Kirov) where F. gained the subsequent development.

In 19 century the physiology finally separated from anatomy. The defining value for development F. at this time had achievements of organic chemistry, opening of the law of conservation and transformation of energy, creation of the cellular theory and theory of organic evolution. Researches in the field of a metabolism and energy in live organisms were developed [in Russia works to W. W. Pasch ooze,

A. A appeared. Likhacheva, in Germany — M. Rubnera, in the USA — F. G. Benedict and U. Etuoter, etc.], as a result to-rykh it was proved that the main source of energy for living beings is food. The methods of a straight line and an indirect calorimetry (see) which allowed to define more precisely amount of energy in various feedstuffs and also the energy emitted by animals and the person in the conditions of rest or at physical activity of various intensity were developed.

Considerable development was gained by F. neuromuscular fabric that was promoted by the developed methods of electric irritation and mechanical graphic registration of a current fiziol. processes. In development of these methods the big contribution was made E. Du Bois-Reymond who offered the induction device, K. Ludvig to-ry invented a kimograf (see Kimografiya), the manometer for registration of blood pressure (see), blood hours for registration of speed of a blood-groove (see) etc.,

E. Marey,-ry to the first applied a movie camera to studying of movements and invented the device for pneumographic registration (see Sfigmografiya),

A. Mosso who offered devices for studying of a krovenapolneniye of bodies (see Pletizmografiya) and researches of exhaustion (see Ergografiya) and a weight table for studying of redistribution of blood. Laws of action of a direct current on excitable fabric (E. Pflyuger, B. F. Verigo) were established, the speed of carrying out excitement is determined by a nerve (G. Helmholtz). Russian physiologist of H. E. Vvedensky formulated concepts about functional lability of fabrics (see Lability) and a parabiosis (see).

The researches of the electric phenomena in an organism begun by L. Gal-vani and A. Volta were continued it. scientists E. Du Bois-Reymond, L. Hermann and domestic physiologist of H. E. Vvedensky. They approached understanding of the nature fiziol. process of excitement. I. M. Sechenov and V. Ya. Danilevsky for the first time registered the electric phenomena in c. N of page (see Electra-fiziol ('a giya). Actively researches of nervous control fiziol began to develop. functions by means of techniques of section and stimulation of various nerves innervating bodies. Thanks to it in Russia the recent scientific trend which received the name a nervosism was based (see). Brothers in Webers (E. F. W. Weber, E. Weber) the braking action of a vagus nerve on heart, I. F. Ts by an ion — the action of a sympathetic nerve which is speeding up cordial reductions, I. P. Pavlov — his reinforcing action on heart, A. P. Walther was opened, and then K. Bernard found sympathetic vasoconstrictive influences. K. Ludvig and I. F. Tsion discovered the centripetal fibers going from heart and an aorta, reflex changing cardiac performance and a tone of vessels, F. V. Ovsyannikov — a vasomotor center in a myelencephalon, and N. A. Mislavsky in detail studied open earlier respiratory center of a myelencephalon.

In 19 century it was suggested about trophic influence of a nervous system, i.e. about its influence on processes of a metabolism and food of bodies (see the Trophicity). F. Ma-zhandi in 1824 described patol. changes in fabrics after section of the innervating their nerves; K. Bernard observed changes of carbohydrate metabolism after a prick to a certain site of a myelencephalon («a sugar prick»); R. Geydengayn established influence of sympathetic nerves on composition of saliva; And. II. Pavlov revealed trophic action of sympathetic nerves on heart.

19 century became a century of formation of the reflex theory (see). Spinal reflexes were in detail studied and the analysis of a reflex arc is carried out. Ch. Bell, F. Marangdi and I. Müller proved patterns of distribution of centrifugal and centripetal fibers in spinal roots (the law Bella — Marangdi).

Ch. Bell in 1824 suggested about the afferent influences going to c. N of page from muscles at their reduction. These views were then are developed by A. M. Phil, and-fitsky in his original textbook «The Physiology Published for the Guide of the Listeners» (1836 — 1840). During the same period of M. Flu-rans conducted researches of a role of various departments of a brain and separate nerves in implementation of autokinesias. It formulated ideas of plasticity of nerve centers and the leading role of big cerebral hemispheres in regulation of autokinesias (see).

The crushing blow on idealistic ideas of work of a brain was struck by I. M. Sechenov. In the work «Reflexes of a Brain» (1863) I. M. Sechenov wrote that all acts of adult and unconscious life on a way of an origin an essence reflexes. Thus, the reflex principle was completely extended to work of a brain. By I. M. Sechenov also the phenomena of the central braking (see Setschenow's inhibition) and summations of excitement in nerve centers were opened.

In the second half of 19 century studying of a role of various departments of a head and spinal cord in regulation of physiological functions was begun [Goltts's researches (F. L. Goltzj, H. Munk, E. Hitzig and G. Th. Fritsch in Germany, L. Luchani in Italy, V. M. Bekhtereva in Russia, etc.]. Gained broad development experimental hirurgiche - Skye the technique [V. A. Basov, L. Thiry, L. Vella, R. Geydengayn, I. P. Pavlov's works, etc.] used for a research of functions of internals, especially digestive organs. For researches in the area F. digestion by means of fistulous techniques to I. P. Pavlov the Nobel Prize (1904) was awarded.

Huge influence on development domestic and world F. rendered I. P. Pavlov's works and his schools. Opening And. G1. Pavlov of a conditioned reflex allowed to start on an objective basis studying of the mental processes which are the cornerstone of behavior of animals and the person (see Higher nervous activity). The main patterns of education and braking of conditioned reflexes were opened by I. P. Pavlov, types of higher nervous activity are established (see), features of disturbance of century of N of at experimental neurosises are revealed, the cortical theory of a dream (see) and hypnosis is developed (see), the foundation of the doctrine about two alarm systems is laid (see. Alarm systems). I. P. Pavlov's researches made the materialistic base for the subsequent researches of mental activity.

For 20 century considerable expansion of the front fiziol is characteristic. researches not only in the European countries, but also in the USA, Japan, China, Australia and India. Ch. Sherring-ton established philosophy of integrative activity of a brain: reciprocal braking, occlusion, convergence of vozbuzhdeniye on separate neurons. R. Magnus laid the foundation for studying of mechanisms of maintenance of a pose in space and its changes at the movements (see the Pose). In

V. M. Bekhterev's researches the role of subcrustal structures in formation of emotional and motor reactions of animals and the person was shown. A. A. Ukhtomsky formulated the leading principle of work of a brain — a dominant (see). Opening amer. scientist of X. Meguny and ital. scientific J. Moruzzi of the nonspecific activating and brake influences of a reticular formation on various departments of a brain (see. A reticular formation) forced to change classical ideas of a distributional pattern of vozbuzhdeniye in c. N of page, about mechanisms of korkovopodkorkovy relationship, a dream and wakefulness, an anesthesia, emotions and motivations. These researches were continued by P. K. Anokhin who formulated ideas of specific character ascending an assetruyushchy influences of subcrustal educations on a cerebral cortex at reactions various biol. qualities. Functions of so-called limbic structures of a brain underwent detailed studying (see. Limbic system). Their participation in regulation of vegetative processes, in formation of emotions (see) and motivations was revealed (see). Great success is achieved in the field of an electrophysiology (see). At the beginning of 20 century by means of a string galvanometer the Dutch scientist V. Eynt of go-veins at and then to the Soviet researcher A. F. Samoylov managed to register biopotentials of heart. In the subsequent by means of electronic amplifiers E. Adrian and D. S. Vorontsov registered biopotentials of nervous trunks (see Bioelectric potential). Registration of electric manifestations of activity of a brain — an electroencephalography (see) was for the first time carried out by the domestic physiologist V. V. Pravdich-Ne-minsky; its researches were continued and developed it. researcher Berger (N. Berger).

Broad development was gained by researches of process of excitement. The ionic theory of excitement was offered domestic scientific

V. 10. Chagovts, then it is developed in works it. scientists J. Bernstein, W. Nernst and domestic researcher of P.G1. Lazarev. English scientists A. Hodzhkin, E. Huxley and B. Katts proved ideas of ionic membrane mechanisms of excitement. In the Soviet Union researches of ionic mechanisms of excitement are successfully conducted under the leadership of P. G. Kostiuk. English physiologist

of A. Hill managed to register heat generation in a nerve during the passing of an excitation wave.

Development of the doctrine about mediators (see) — chemical transmitters of nervous impulse in nerve terminations is closely connected with studying of process of excitement (A. F. Samoylov, I. P. Razenkov, A. V. Kibyakov, K. M. Bykov, X. S. Koshtoyants in the USSR, O. Levi in Austria, U. Kennon in the USA, etc.).

Developing ideas of integrative activity of a nervous system, J. Ekkyas in detail developed membrane mechanisms of synoptic transfer (see the Synapse).

Since works an amer. the physiologist U. Kennon researches fiziol began to develop intensively. mechanisms of emotions [amer. scientists of Grain stillage (Ph. Bard), P. Mac Lane, D. Lin D-sli, J. Olds, Italian scientist A. Zaiichetti,

Swiss scientific V. Hess, R. W. Hunsperger, Soviet researchers I. S. Beritashvili, P. K. Anokhin, A. V. Valdman,

N. P. Bekhtereva, P. V. Simonov

, etc.]. Discovery of chemism of muscular contraction became large achievement of 20 century [works it is mute. biochemist O. Meyergof, Soviet scientific

B. A. Engelgardt and M. of II.

Liu Bimowa, Hungarian

biochemist A. Saint-Dyyordyi, English scientists E. Huxley and I. Anson].

Rapid development was gained by endocrinology (see). The chemical composition and the mechanism of action of a number of hormones is found out, many from to-rykh are synthesized in laboratories (see Hormones). Ideas of uniform system to a neyrog of moral regulation (see), a homeostasis (see), barrier functions of an organism are formulated (see. Barrier functions). The new chapter was made by the doctrine about vitamins (see) — works of domestic scientists N. I. Lunin, B. A. Lavrov, the Polish scientist K. Funk, etc.

L. A. Orbeli and his pupils (A. V. Tonky, A. G. Ginetsinsky, etc.), investigating adaptation and trophic influences of a sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles, sense bodys and c. N of page, developed idea of trophic function of the autonomic nervous system (see the Trophicity). K. M. Bykov showed a role of conditioned reflexes in regulation of functions of internals (see Interoception).

In the middle of 20 century great progress was made by F. food. Energy costs of people of various professions were studied and evidence-based norms of food are developed (M. N. of Illaternikov, O. P. Molchanova, A. A. Pokrovsky, etc.). Considerable development was gained by researches in the field of digestion (see). The central hypothalamic mechanisms of regulation of hunger (see Hunger as the physiological phenomenon) and saturation were open [an amer. researcher J. Brobeck, Indian scientist Anand (V. K. A n and), etc.]; Goal the mechanism of pristenochny digestion is open for A. M. U. Due to space and flights arose and developed space F. Considerable development in the second half of 20 century was gained by F. touch systems — works of the Soviet scientists of V. N. Chernigovsky,

A. JI. Byzova, G. V. Gershuni, R. A. Durinyan, Swedish researcher R. Granit, Canadian scientist V. Amassian.

Outstanding successes are achieved in the field of studying of cardiac performance [E. Starling, Lewis (Th. Lewis) in England, Uiggers (Page J. Wiggers) in the USA, A. I. Smirnov in the USSR, etc.], blood vessels [K. Geymans in Belgium, V. V. Larin,

B. N. Chernigovsky, B. I. Tkachenko to the USSR, Nile (E. Neil) in England, etc.], microcirculation (A. K a horn, A. M. Chernukh, etc.), mechanisms of breath and transport of gases blood [J. B are Croft, J. Haldane in England, Van-Slayk (D. I). Van Slyke) in the USA, E. M. Krep in the USSR, etc.]. Gained considerable development in works of L. A. Orbeli and his pupils comparative and evolutionary F.

Since 60th 20 century in F. systems approach to studying of functions began to gain the increasing value (see Function). Considerable achievement Soviet F. the theory of functional system developed by P. K. Anokhin is (see. Functional systems), according to a cut various bodies of the whole organism are selectively involved in the system organizations providing achievement of final results, adaptive for an organism. The theory of functional system allowed to start from new positions studying of mechanisms of purposeful activity of the person and animals, mechanisms of compensation of the broken functions, pain (see) and anesthesia (see), emotional stresses (see), ontogenesis (see) etc.

Current trends and problems of development of physiology. Leading tendency of development modern F. deepening of researches fiziol is. functions of a human body. Clarification of mechanisms of Celinum of i/ra in flax of N oh of a neikha ches which deyatet-nosti animals and the person became one of the leading tasks. Considerable progress managed to achieve during the studying of the thinnest neyronalny mechanisms of a conditioned reflex, clarification of functional distinctions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres, mechanisms of recognition of images, etc. The problem of perception, transfer and processing of information is actively studied by various touch systems. The increasing development is gained by researches fiziol. mechanisms of a dream, emotions, motivations. Significant progress is planned in researches of formation and perception of the speech (see).

Certain success is achieved in studying of mechanisms of adaptation of the person to working conditions and life, and also to action of various extreme factors — emotional stresses, various climatic conditions, etc. (see. And daptation). Central task modern F. in this area clarification of mechanisms of resistance of the person to stressful influences is. Self-governed experiments were widely adopted, in to-rykh by means of the COMPUTER remain in certain borders various fiziol. indicators of an experimental object, despite various impacts on it.

Researches of functions of the person in a space and underwater environment in this connection the increasing development get a job on modeling fiziol are of great importance. functions, to creation of the robots capable to function in extreme conditions, etc.

One of tasks modern F. need of improvement and creation of new systems of protection of the person against adverse influence of various physical factors is: actions of electromagnetic fields (I eat.), accelerations (see), zero gravity (see), differences of barometric pressure, etc.

A number of researches in F. it is devoted to studying of medical problems. This clarification of a role of emotional stresses in genesis of cardiovascular diseases and neurosises, a problem of pain and anesthesia, etc. The experiments directed to examination fiziol are very perspective. mechanisms of electroacupuncture (see Reflexotherapy). The research of functions of a brain of the person was promoted substantially by implementation of a stereotaxic method and method of implantation in a brain of special electrodes with the medical and diagnostic purpose (see. Stereotaxic method). Telemetric methods of stimulation and registration various fiziol razviatsya successfully. functions at animals and the person (see Telemetry).

In the field of physiology of century of N of page researches of the central mechanisms of regulation of vegetative functions of an organism, mechanisms of adaptation and trophic influence of century of N of page, the structurally functional organization vegetative gangliyev, etc. are conducted (see the Autonomic nervous system). Researches of mechanisms of breath, blood circulation, digestion, water salt metabolism, thermal control, and also activity of hemadens allow to progress considerably in understanding fiziol. mechanisms of visceral functions.

Due to the need of creation of more perfect artificial organs, napr, hearts, kidneys, a liver, etc. (see. Artificial organs), before F. there is a problem of clarification of mechanisms of their interaction with an organism of recipients. More and more widely researches on artificial modeling of psychopathological syndromes on animals for the purpose of clarification of patterns of their emergence and ways of elimination by means of various means develop (see Psychopharmacology).

One of the leading directions fiziol. researches there was a studying of molecular mechanisms of processes of nervous excitement and muscular contraction, clarification of molecular mechanisms of excitement of neurons, the genetic and acquired in the course of individual life mechanisms of predisposition and resistance to action of various extreme factors. The attention to disclosure of the nature of selective permeability of cellular membranes, mechanisms of transport of substances through cellular membranes (see Permeability, Transport ionsv), a role of neurons, their populations and glial elements in integrative activity of a brain and, in particular, in processes of memory is focused (see). Searches of molecular mechanisms of memory are one of the central problems of modern physiology; more and more researches fiziol extend. roles of oligopeptid in mechanisms of memory, emotions, motivations and a dream (see the Neurochemistry).

The important direction of researches is studying fiziol. features of maturing of these or those functions of a fruit of the person in an embryogenesis (see. Embryonic development), age F. and gerontology (see), important for decrease in child mortality and extension of human life. Researches of evolutionary features of the morfofunktsionalny organization of a nervous system and various somato-vegetative functions of an organism are intensively conducted. Special relevance was acquired by researches of physiological changes of a human body in connection with environmental pollution (see Environmental control, Ecology). In this plan a priority is clarification of influence of industrial and household pollution of aqueous and air medium on fiziol. reactions of an organism, on their sensitivity to toxicants, etc.

Physiological institutions of the USSR. Physiological researches in the USSR are conducted in a number of large institutions: in Ying-that physiology of I. P. Pavlov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Leningrad), Ying-those higher nervous activity and neurophysiology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow), Ying-those evolutionary physiology and biochemistry of I. M. Sechenov of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Leningrad), Ying-those normal physiology of P. K. Anokhin of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow), Ying-those the general pathology and pathological physiology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow), Ying-those a brain of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow), Ying-that physiology to them. A. A. Bogomoltsa AN of USSR (Kiev), Ying-that physiology of AN of BSSR (Minsk), Ying-that physiology of I. S. Beritashvili (Tbilisi), Ying-that physiology of L. A. Orbeli (Yerevan), Ying-that physiology to them. A. I. Karayeva (Baku), in in-ta of physiology in Tashkent, Alma-Ata, etc. the cities of the country. In 1916 it is based Ob-in of the Russian physiologists (nowadays All-Union physiological society of I. P. Pavlov). In 1963 the Department of physiology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR coordinating work of physiological institutions Academy of Sciences of the USSR and All-Union physiological society is organized.

In 1970 the International union of physiological sciences (JUPS) is organized, publication to-rogo is «News and Letters».

Pedagogical and scientific work is carried out at departments of physiology medical, pedagogical and page - x. higher education institutions, and also in high fur boots. It is published apprx. 10 magazines on various questions F. (the short list of periodicals on F. — see the bibliography).

Physiological congresses. Since 1889 each 3 years (with a break in 7 years in connection with World War I and in 9 years in connection with World War II by wars) are convoked the International congresses of physiologists: the 1st —

in 1889 in Basel (Switzerland);

the 2nd — in 1892 in Liege (Belgium);

the 3rd — in 1895 in Bern (Switzerland); the 4th — in 1898 in Cambridge (England); the 5th — in 1901 in Turin (Italy); the 6th — in 1904 in Brussels (Belgium); the 7th — in 1907 in Heidelberg (Germany); the 8th — in 1910 in Vienna (Austria); the 9th — in 1913 in Groninge (Holland); the 10th — in 1920 in Paris (France); the 11th — in 1923 in Edinburgh (England); the 12th — in 1926 in Stockholm (Sweden); the 13th — in 1929 in Boston (USA); the 14th — in 1932 in Rome (Italy); the 15th — in 1935 in Leningrad and Moscow (USSR); the 16th — in 1938 in Zurich (Switzerland); The 17th — in 1947 in Oxford (England); the 18th — in 1950 in Copenhagen (Denmark); the 19th — in 1953 in Montreal (Canada); the 20th — in 1956 in Brussels (Belgium); the 21st — in 1959 in Buenos Aires (Argentina); the 22nd — in 1962 in Leiden (Holland); the 23rd — in 1965 in Tokyo (Japan); the 24th — in 1968 in Washington (USA); the 25th — in 1971 in Munich (Germany); the 26th — in 1974 in New Delhi (India); the 27th — in 1977 in Paris (France);

the 28th — in 1980 in Budapest (VNR);

the 29th — in 1983 in Sydney (Australia).

All-Union congresses of physiologists began to be convened since 1917: the 1st congress — in 1917 in Petrograd (The Russian congress of physiologists); The 2nd congress — in 1926 in Leningrad; the 3rd — in 1928 in Moscow; the 4th — in 1930 in Kharkiv; the 5th — in 1934 in Moscow; the 6th — in 1937 in Tbilisi;

the 7th — in 1947 in Moscow; the 8th — in 1955 in Kiev; the 9th — in 1959 in Minsk; the 10th — in 1964 in Yerevan; the 11th — in 1970 in Leningrad; the 12th — in 1975 in Tbilisi; the 13th — in 1979 in Alma-Ata; the 14th — in 1983 in Baku.

Bibliography: History — Anokhin P. K. From Descartes to Pavlov, M., 1945; Koshtoyants X. C. Sketches on stories of physiology in Russia, M. — L., 1946; L at the Tax Code e in and the p B. B. From Heraclitus to Darwin, Sketches on stories of biology, t. 1 — 2, M., 1960; F. P. Istoriya's Majors of the doctrine about conditioned reflexes, M. — L., 1954.

Textbooks, the guide, the main works — Anokhin P. K. Biology and neurophysiology of a conditioned reflex, M., 1968; it, Sketches on physiology of functional systems, M., 1975;

it e, System mechanisms of higher nervous activity, M., 1979; it,

Philosophical aspects of the theory of functional system, M., 1979; it,

Nodal questions of the theory of functional system, M., 1980; Asratyan E. A. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, M., 1981; In e r and - t about in I. S. General physiology of a muscular and nervous system, t. 1 — 2, M., 1959 — 1966; about and e, Nervous mechanisms of behavior of the highest vertebrate animals, M., 1961; it, Memory of vertebrate animals, its characteristic and origin, M., 1974; Bekhterev V. M. Chosen works, M., 1954; B y-to about in K. M. Chosen works, t. 1 — 2, M., 1953 — 1954; In in e d e N -

with to and y H. E. Complete works, t. 1 — 7, L., 1951 — 1963; Age physiology, under the editorship of V. N. Nikitin, L., 1975; Gel of about r N E. and L at f about solution about at D. Emotions and emotional frustration, the lane with English, M., 1966; Goffman B. and To p e y Fi f and l d P. Elektrofiziologiya of heart, the lane with English, M., 1962; Gran and t of River. Bases of regulation of movements, the lane with English, M., 197L; r and - h e in I. I. and and l and N of c e in V. P.

Physiology.1 aktation, L., 1973; Delgado of X. A brain and consciousness, the lane with English, M., 1971; And OST of X. Physiology of a cell, the lane with English, M., 1975; Clinical neurophysiology, under the editorship of N. P. Bekhtereva, L., 1972; Kogan A. B. Electrophysiology, M., 1969; To about with t and A. P. N, M e-shch e r I to about in F. A. and Sysoyev of A. A. Fiziologiya of farm animals, M., 1974; Kostya to P. G. Fiziologiya central nervous system, Kiev, 1977; Koshtoyants X. C. Fundamentals of comparative physiology, t. 1 — 2, M., 1950 — 1957; Lazarev 11. G1. Sochi

neniya, t. 2, M. — L., 1950; Magnus R. Installation of a body, the lane with it., M. — L., 1962; M and with l and in with to and y N. A. Chosen works, M., 1952; The General and private physiology of a nervous system, under the editorship of 11. G. Kostiuk, L., 1969; About in with I N of N and -

to about in F. V. Chosen the work, M., 1955; Orbeli L. A. Lectures on questions of higher nervous activity, M. — L., 1945; about N e, the Chosen works, t. 1 — 5, M. — L., 1961 — 1968; Pavlov I. P. Complete works, t. 1 — 6, M., 1951 — 1952; Parin V. V.

and M e e r with about N F. 3. Sketches to a klinicha

of sky physiology of blood circulation, M., 1965; Prosser A. and Brown F.

Comparative zoophysiology of the lane with English, M., 1967; R at with and N about in V. with! Dominant, M., 1969; Sechenov I. M. Chosen works, t. 1, M., 1952; it, Lectures on physiology, M.,

1974; Speransky A. D. Chosen works, M., 1955; K. V Pike perches. Biological motivations, M., 1971;

Thin A. V. Gipotalamo-gipofi-zarnaya area and regulation of physiological functions of an organism, L., 1968;

Corner ev A. M. Membrane digestion, Polysubstrate processes, organizations regulation, L., 1972; At x t about ms to and y A. A. Collected works, t. 1 — 6, L., 1950 —-1962; Physiology of higher nervous activity, under the editorship of

3. A. Asratyana, p.1 — 2, L., 1970 — 1971;

Physiology of movements, under the editorship of V. S. Gur-finkel, L., 1976; Physiology of breath, under the editorship of L. L. Shik, L., 1973; Physiology of muscle performance of work and sport, under the editorship of N. I. Chernigovsky, L., 1969; Physiology of digestion, under the editorship of

A. V. Solovyov, L., 1974; Physiology

of a kidney, under the editorship of Yu. V. Natochina, L., 1972; Physiology of the speech, under the editorship of V. N. Chernigovsky, L., 1976; Physiology a sensor

of ny systems, under the editorship of G. V. Gershuni,

4. 1 — 3, L., 1971 — 1975; Physiology" systems of blood, under the editorship of A. Ya. Yaroshevsky, L., 1968; Human physiology, under the editorship of E. B. Babsky, M., 1972; Hodzhkin A. Nervous impulse, the lane with English, M., 1965;

X about d about r about in B. I. General physiology of excitable membranes, L., 1975; Chern of IS about in with to and y V. N. Interoceptors, M., 1960; Sh e p r and N of of t about N of H. Integrative activity of a nervous system, the lane with English, L., 1969; Stern L. S. A direct medium of bodies and fabrics, the Physiological mechanisms defining its structure and properties, the Chosen works, M., 1960; E to l with D. Physiology of nervous cells, the lane with English, M., 1959; about N e, Brake ways of the central nervous system, the lane with English, M., 1971; Dean M. R. Of Basic anatomy and physiology for radiographers Oxford a. o., 1981; G a n o n g W. F.’

Review of medical physiology, Los Altos 1971; Guy t o n A. C. Textbook of medica] physiology, Philadelphia a. o., 1981;

about and e, Human physiology and mechanisms of diseases, Philadelphia a. o., 1982; Lehrbuch der Pliysiologie, hrsg. v. W. Riidi-ger, B., 1971; M with With 1 i n t i with J. R. Basic anatomy and physiology of human body,

N. Y. and. lake, 1980; Ochs S. Elemenis of neurophysiology, N. Y. a. o., 1965; Physiology and biophysics, ed. by T. C. Ruch a. H. D. Patton, Philadelphia — L., 1965;

R e i with h e I H. u. In I e i with h e r t A. Medizinische Physiologic, Bd 1, Stuttgart — N. Y., 1980.

Periodicals — Magazine of higher nervous activity of I. P. Pavlov, M., since 1951; The Magazine of .evolyutsionny biochemistry and physiology, M., since 1965; Neurophysiology, Kiev, since 1969; The Neurochemistry, Yerevan, since 1982; Achievements of physiological sciences, M., since 1970; Human physiology, M., since 1975; American Journal of Physiology, Baltimore, since 1902; Animal Behaviour, L., e 1953; Annual Review of Physiology, Stanford, since 1939; Behaviour,

Leiden/1947 — 1 959; Brain Research, Amsterdam, since 1966; Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Ottawa, since 1964 (1955 — 1964 — Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology); Federation Proceedings, Baltimore, since 1942; International Journal of Neuroscience, L. and. the lake, since 1971; Journal of Neurophysiology, Springfield, since 1939; Neuroscience, Oxford and. the lake, since 1977; Physiological Reviews, Washington, since 1921; Psychophysiology, Baltimore, since 1964. K. V. Sudakov.

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