PHYSICS HEALTH (grech, hygieinos useful to health) — the section of hygiene studying influence of ionizing radiation on health of the person for the purpose of development of measures of antiradiation protection.
The ruble of uses methods of hygiene (see), nuclear physics, radiochemistry, and also radiobiology (see), radio-toxicology (see. Isotopes ), mathematics and other scientific disciplines. Progress of theoretical, pilot and applied researches in the area P. of plays the defining role in formation of concepts and the principles of a regulation of tolerance levels of radiation and development of radio-gramophones, forecasts of development of nuclear power.
Variety of conditions and ways of impact of ionizing radiation (see) on the person caused formation of two main sections of this discipline — a utility and professional physics health, and also a number of the directions within this division.
Emergence and R.'s formation of as independent scientific discipline happened in the 50th 20 century and was caused by achievements in a technical solution of the problem of the managed fission test of kernels of uranium and creation poison of er-ny weapon. The first scientific division according to R. in our country was created in 1945 in Ying-those occupational health and occupational diseases of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, soon laboratories P. of were organized in Ying-those biophysics of M3 of the USSR. In 1957 in Leningrad Ying t of a physics health of M3 of RSFSR, and in a number of research in-t of M3 of the USSR — laboratory P. of was created. In 1957 in TsIU R.'s department of is created, in 1960 departments P. of were organized in Leningrad and Kiev U V GUIDE. On the basis of numerous researches and practical developments the principles domestic a dignity were formulated. legislations in the field of radiation safety, the radiation and hygienic control service within SES is created, shots are prepared.
The essential contribution to R.'s formation of as scientific discipline, in creation of material and technical resources and training was brought by I. V. Kurchatov, A. I. Burnazyan, F. G. Krotkoye, A. A. Letavet.
In 1953 the first in our country were published «Health regulations and norms during the work with radioisotopes» which taking into account achievements of science and practice are constantly supplemented and improved.
Rapid development of the atomic industry (see), power engineering specialists and implementation of sources of ionizing radiation in the national economy caused need of development a gigabyte. requirements to the choice of platforms under construction of the corresponding objects; to placement and design of rooms; to protection, finishing and equipment of radiation-hazardous sites and installations. The question of rationing of ionizing radiation and assessment of effects of radiation, development of methods and means of protection was urgent. Along with physicians the wide range of specialists of adjacent fields of knowledge — radiobiologies, physics, radiochemistry was attracted to the solution of these tasks, mathematicians — and conditions for timely performance large-scale complex a gigabyte are created. researches and development of preventive actions. Development a gigabyte was important achievement of R. of during this period. the principles and implementation of new type of zone planning solutions depending on degree of possible radiocontamination of production rooms. Requirements to systems of removal and burial, radioactive waste (see), to fiziologo-hygienic criteria of creation of individual protection equipment of personnel were essentially new (see. Antiactinic protection ), to volume dosimetric (see. Radiation control ) and radiometric control (see. Radiometry ) at the enterprises, in objects of the environment etc.
One of the fundamental principles P. of — establishment of patterns of formation of beam loadings (exposure doses) and their quantitative assessment. On the basis of this principle many requirements to a gigabyte form. to interpretation of a radiation situation and creation of methods and means of antiradiation protection. This principle for the first time realized in R. is widely adopted during the studying and forecasting of the remote effects of influence of anthropogenous agents of not radiation nature (e.g., chemical oncogenes).
In R. forecasting of effects of radiation in small doses is based on a hypothesis of nonthreshold action of ionizing radiation.
It means existence of linear relation of frequency of manifestation of some negative effects of radiation — malignant tumors and genetic disorders — from an absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. This approach considering the stochastic (probabilistic) nature of manifestation of the specified effects allows to estimate the frequency of the expected effects among various contingents of people as a result of impact of ionizing radiation.
Objects of studying of R. of are: natural background of ionizing radiation; tekhnogenno the raised natural background caused by use of the construction materials and mineral fertilizers containing the increased quantities of natural radioelements; applied in medicine from diagnostic and to lay down. purpose radioactive materials and other sources of radiations; the sources of ionizing radiation used in the national economy and in scientific research; a complex of the enterprises of a nuclear fuel cycle where production and processing of radioactive ores, production of nuclear fuel, operation of atomic reactors (e.g., nuclear power plants), processing of irradiated nuclear fuel, removal and burial of radioactive waste is carried out; use for needs of the national economy of energy of nuclear explosions and energy of division of heavy-nuclei (e.g., on vessels with nuclear power stations — atomic-powered vessels); and also global (universal) losses of radioactive products of nuclear explosions in test data of atomic and thermonuclear weapons.
The river of has sufficient scientific and practical information to define and predict structure and sizes of individual and collective exposure doses of various contingents of people. For improvement of methods of assessment and R.'s forecasting studies patterns of behavior of radioactive materials in ecological systems for the purpose of definition of constants of their migration in various links biol, chains, including a human body. These data are necessary for establishment of correlation dependences between levels of radiocontamination of objects of the environment and intake (accumulation) of radionuclides (see. Radioactive materials) in a human body. Are already developed and in process of accumulation of new data mathematical models of migration — exchange of biologically significant radionuclides are constantly improved ( 3 N, 14 With, 85 Kr, 131 I, 129 I, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, etc.) in the environment and a human body. These data use also for development of methods and scientific justification of volumes of health and radiometric control behind sources of radiocontamination and content of radionuclides in free air, drinking water, foodstuff, etc.
Studying of the factors determining levels of accumulation, durability of fixing of radionuclides in objects of the environment including foodstuff of an animal and plant origin, in combination with data on features of their migration on separate links biol, chains allow to find purposefully methods and ways of restriction of arrival of these agents in a human body.
The ruble of studies influence of the raised radioactive background on health of the population, including somatic and hereditary effects of radiation; estimates beam loads of the population at diagnostic use of sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and develops recommendations about streamlining and restriction of their use without prejudice to the purposes of diagnosis of diseases. One of problems of R. of is development of methods of forecasting a gigabyte. a situation and actions for protection of the population at radiation accidents.
Researches in the field of occupational health include studying of conditions and features of formation of a radiation situation at the enterprises and in laboratories and first of all in workplaces — as basic element a gigabyte. estimates of levels of radiation of personnel and development of preventive actions; studying of questions of hygiene and physiology of work of personnel taking into account features of production and all complex of the operating factors of not radiation nature and development corresponding a gigabyte. recommendations. These researches are closely connected with studying of questions of the general and the prof. of incidence of personnel. Within these problems of hygiene and labor protection the whole directions on development of methods of individual dosimetry of different types of ionizing radiation were created (including creation of counters of radiation of the person for quantitative registration of contents in an organism of people gamma, beta emitters, the alpha radiating nuclides, e.g. 239 Pu, etc. which disintegration is followed by emission of low-energy gamma and x-ray emission) and to creation of individual protection equipment, and also ways of prevention of accumulation and stimulation of removal of radionuclides from an organism, etc.
Scientific achievements to areas P. of and implementation of their results in practice promoted that the atomic industry and nuclear power in the USSR became one of the safest industries of the national economy as for the workers occupied in these industries and for the population living near such enterprises.
The wide complex of researches in the area P. of allowed to obtain data on structure and levels of beam loads of the separate contingents of people and all population of the USSR from various sources of ionizing radiation. Regulations of radiation of various categories of workers and separate groups of the population are proved; are developed and implemented in practice of standard of radiation safety (NRB-76) and other documents in the field of radiation safety of the population and environmental control.
The main problems of R. of are: development gigabyte. questions of radiatsioniy safety (see) at implementation in practice of new ways and technologies of receiving and use of nuclear energy and other sources of ionizing radiation; gigabyte. assessment of the existing and perspective methods of processing, removal and burial of radioactive waste; gigabyte. justification of quotas for radiation of separate groups of the population and population in general from various factors of radiative effects taking into account perspectives of development of nuclear power in the USSR. An urgent task in the field of hygienic rationing is the problem of establishment of dependence between levels of radiation and biol, effects in the range of small doses of radiations. One of the important directions of works in the area P. of — development of approaches to justification of marginal levels of the combined action of factors of the radiation and not radiation nature on a human body.
Training of specialists on a physics health in our country is carried out at departments of a physics health of medical institutes and institutes of improvement of doctors.
Coordination of scientific research in the area P. of is carried out by the Problem commission on a physics health within Scientific council on hygiene of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Recommendations in the area a gigabyte. rationing of ionizing radiation is carried out by the National commission on radiation protection (NKRZ) operating as advisory body at M3 of the USSR.
Scientific works according to R. are published in the USSR in magazines «Hygiene and Sanitation», «Occupational Health and Occupational Diseases», «Medical Radiology», «Atomic energy», «Radiobiology». The Health Physics magazine, and also publications of the International commission on radiation protection (MKRZ) and Scientific UN committee on action of atomic radiation is abroad most known (NKDAR of the UN).
Bibliography: Vorobyov E. I., etc. Atomic energy and environment, Atomic energy, t. 43, century 5, page 374, 1977; Vorobyov E. I., etc. Urgent problems of a radioecology and hygiene in nuclear power, in the same place, t. 47, century 4, page 219,1979; Dikobes I. K., etc. Adoption of urgent decisions on measures of protection of the population in case of emergency radioactive emission in external environment, in book: Handling of radiation accidents, p. 547, Vienna, 1969; To-rillov both V. F. and Cherkasov E. F. Physics health, M., 1982; L I r-with to and y P. P. The main results and perspectives of development of a physics health in the USSR, San. and gigabyte., No. I, page 73, 1977; Standards of radiation safety of NRB-76, M., 1978; Parkhomenko G. M., Egorov M. S. and To V. V au shares. Occupational health during the work with transplutonium elements, M., 1974; Radiation protection, Recommendations of MKRZ, the Publication No. 26, the lane with English, M., 1978; Radiation protection in medical and research medical institutions, Recommendations of MKRZ, the Publication No. 25, the lane with English, M., 1978.
L. A. Ilyin.