PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT — set of the morphological and functional features of an organism allowing to define a stock of his physical forces, endurance and working capacity.
T. the river is one of indicators of the state of health of the population (see). T. the river of the person is characterized by the weight and a shape of a body, a condition of nervous control and fatigue. The sizes of a body as a net result of process of growth (see) are closely connected with all complex of functional properties: standard metabolism (see) and separate types of metabolism (see the Metabolism and energy), hormonal and neurotrophic regulators (see. Hormonal regulation, Trophicity), etc. Thereof morfol. the type has major importance in the characteristic F. river of the person, and fiziol. tests characterize separate properties of an organism. At high and positive communication of structure and functional coefficients of an organism morfol. the characteristic allows to give a direct assessment of a stock of physical forces. For definition of morphological (structural) type use indicators of principal dimensions of a body. T. the river of children and teenagers reflects pattern of growth and development, process of maturing of an organism, and also its morfofunktsionalny state in each age period. T. the river of the person in onto-and phylogenesis depends as from biol. factors (heredity, variability), and from a difficult complex of social, economic, hygienic, klimatogeografichesky and other conditions of the environment (see). Under the influence of adverse factors it decreases, improvement of conditions promotes increase in level F. river. Dependence F. the river from social factors was established by a number of domestic and foreign scientists. At the end of the 19th century F. F. Erisman studying physical development ra-bochikh-tekstilytsikov different professions of the Glukhovsky manufactory and their children established that physical development of workers, and especially their children, substantially depends on social conditions — than it is worse living conditions, especially indicators F were low. river. In England, according to Daley (W. A. Daley, 1944), children of workers had the smaller body weight and growth, than children from prosperous families. The young workers of Paris had lower indicators F. river, than youth of rich areas.
In the USSR in the period of the Great Patriotic War with deterioration in conditions of life and food decrease in level F was noted. river of the population, especially children in front areas and in temporarily occupied territories. Special measures of the Soviet state for elimination of sanitary effects of war (see) promoted bystry recovery of level F. river of the children's population. In 1946 positive shifts in indicators F came to light. river of children, and by the beginning of the 50th.
almost in all age groups of the children's population their compliance to indicators of the pre-war period was noted. To the middle of the 50th F is almost universal. surpassed by river of children data of premilitary years and continued to improve. In the last 30 years in the USSR and other socialist countries favorable dynamics F is noted. the river of children, to it is promoted by further increase in living standards of the population, a balanced diet (see), favorable conditions for education and training of younger generation, broad development of physical culture and sport (see). Improvement of indicators F. the river of children of all age occurs not only due to favorable dynamics of processes of growth of an organism, but also due to acceleration of its development (see Acceleration).
Interrelation F. the river and the states of health is especially shown in the growing organism. Existence hron. diseases negatively influences level F. river of children, deadlines of age development are skirted, the disgarmonichnost of the morfofunktsionalny status is noted.
During the studying F. the river is applied the unified technique of anthropometrical researches (see Anthropometry). From all variety morfol. and functional signs most often are defined: length of a body (growth), body weight
(see), a circle of a thorax, vital capacity of lungs (see), an animal force of hands, stanovy force (see. Muscular work); features of a constitution, a condition of a musculoskeletal system, a shape of a backbone, thorax, legs, a bearing are estimated; are defined extent of adipopexis and development of secondary sexual characteristics. Program of a research F. the river can change depending on the inspected contingents and the purposes of researches. Individual assessment F. the ruble is carried out by comparison of indicators of separate signs to standards or standard average sizes. For receiving average values F. river examination of big groups of almost healthy people in rather short time (generalizing a method) is conducted. Results of measurements are processed by methods of variation statistics (see. With main an ist and a dignity and tar N aya). P about luchenny average values are standards F. river of the corresponding groups of the population. Working standards F. the river does not exist. For each age and sex group of the population of this territory scales of regression F are calculated. river (see. Correlation analysis), on the Crimea individual and group assessment F is carried out. river of the population.
Development of so-called zone standards F is of special value. river of the population of the same territories similar on geographical, economic and ecological conditions.
During the studying F. the river of children and teenagers apply also individualizing (longitudinal) method, i.e. a method of dynamic observation for a number of years. This method allows to reveal the features of growth and development of each individual connected with specific conditions of life (character of food, mode, the postponed diseases, etc.). Standards F. the ruble and the special estimated tables developed on their basis (tables of correlation or a scale of regression on length of a body) widely use in practice of medical institutions (especially children's) for individual assessment F. river.
For assessment F. the ruble of an individual was used the method of indexes based on comparison of two and more anthropometrical sizes proceeding from the bonds existing between them earlier. The method of assessment in size of sigmal-ny deviations gained distribution in the subsequent: anthropometrical indicators F. rubles of an individual are compared to average values of age and sex group, divide the received difference into a devirage quadratic deviation (sigma), in size of the received result judge degree of approximation of this sign to an average (standard). The lack of this method consists in the isolated assessment of each indicator of physical development, out of correlation communication with others therefore it is more preferable to use scales of regression. However their use is undesirable at assessment F. river of persons, with a disproportionate constitution.
On the basis of scales of regression and standards of physical development graphic grids, charts of growth, the schedule of channels and levels F are developed. river. They are evident and rather convenient in work. By more modern method of assessment F. the river is use of nonlinear regressive model for assessment at the same time of three indicators of principal dimensions of a body (weight, growth, a circle of a thorax) — a method of multiple correlation or multidimensional korrelya tsi it and y y the analysis (see). In recent years the complex method of assessment F is offered. the ruble allowing to define biol. level of development and harmony of the morfofunktsionalny status of a human body.
Bibliography: Apanasenko G. L.
Assessment of physical development, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 12, page 51, 1988; B and sh to and P. N ditch. The doctrine about physical development of the person,
M., 1962, bibliogr.; Kurkin P. I., Statistics of physical development of the working population, M., 1925; Maxims of the island of T. M., etc. Some questions of studying of statistical distribution of the main signs of physical development of the population, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 4, page 31, 1981; Materials on physical
development of children and teenagers of the cities and rural areas of the USSR, sost. A. B. Stavitskaya, etc., century 3, M., 1977;
Physical development of modern school students, under the editorship of G. P. Salnikova, M., 1977, bibliogr.; C e y t of l and A. G N, Physical development of children and teenagers, M., 1963. V. N. Kardashenko.