From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORT. Physical culture — a part of the general culture of society, means of strengthening of health, all-round physical development of the person. Includes physical exercises, sport, tourism (see), methods of a hardening of an organism (see the Hardening). The physical culture is appreciated in society first of all as manifestation of vigorous activity. The essence of physical culture is defined by it. The Communist Party and the Soviet government paid and pay much attention to development of physical culture, its implementation in life of the people.

In article 24 of the Constitution of the USSR it is specified that the state promotes development of mass physical culture and sport. In

V. I. Lenin's works need of all-round development of the personality, a harmonious combination of training to physical training was repeatedly emphasized.

After Great October socialist revolution the physical culture in our country began to develop as grass-roots movement. The significant role in it was played by Vsevobuch (General military education) created under the decree signed by V. I. Lenin in 1918 for the purpose of military training of the population and formation of replenishment for Red Army. Through Vsevobuch the mass of youth was acquainted with physical culture. At the beginning of the 20th in Moscow and Petrograd the first were organized in-you physical culture. In 1923 at VTsP K the Supreme council of physical culture is founded, to-ry N. A. Semashko headed. Councils of physical culture were also created on places (on a territorial sign). The leadership in sports and sports work in the country was assigned to them (is later on committees on physical culture and sport at executive committees of deputies of workers).

In 1925 the resolution C To RCP(b) «About problems of party in the field of physical culture» was accepted, in Krom the physical culture and sport were considered as an educational tool, strengthenings of health of workers and increase in labor productivity.

Important milestones in development of physical culture, involvement to it of broad masses of the population, especially youth, were the first Sports contest of the people of the USSR which was held in 1928 and the all-Union sports complex «It Is Ready to Work and Defense of the USSR» entered in 1931 (see).

In days of the Great Patriotic War the physical culture became an important part of physical training of fighters and commanders of all types of military forces (see. Physical training in Armed Forces). Widely applied in military-medical institutions to lay down. the physical culture promoted reduction of terms of recovery of wounded and patients, return them in a system.

In 1972 the new complex «It Is Ready to Work and Defense of the USSR» including 5 steps for persons aged from 10 up to 60 years is accepted. Since September 1, 1979 the new initial step of GTO «Is entered to starts it is ready» for children of 7 — 9 years.

The main directions in development and improvement of physical culture and sport at all stages were defined by decisions and special resolutions of Party and Government.

In the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further rise in mass character of physical culture and sport» (1981) it is specified that the main task of the sports movement, all system of physical training — in every possible way to promote strengthening of health of the Soviet people, increase in their working capacity and labor productivity, readiness for protection of the Homeland, gains of socialism, formation of high moral qualities, courage, force and endurance, to education of healthy and cheerful younger generation. Special attention is paid on further development of the grass-roots sports movement, its transformation in public, implementation of physical culture in life of each group of workers, in life of each Soviet family. The demand to strengthen the party leadership in the sports movement, to increase the responsibility of the Soviet, trade-union, Komsomol, sports and economic organizations for originally mass development of physical culture and sport is made.

In this regard the serious problems consisting in improvement of medical control of the state of health of athletes and athletes, expansion of network of vrachebnofizkulturny clinics are set for medics. It is necessary to provide active sports and recreational work for strengthening of prevention of a number of diseases in comprehensive plans of sanitary and recreational actions.


309 C growth of welfare and cultures of the population constantly increases number playing physical culture and sport. If in 1940 in the country was apprx. 5,3 million athletes, then by 1984 the number exceeded them 85 million. According to TsSU USSR, only in

1983 in the country it is prepared apprx.

31 million znachkist of the GTO complex.

The physical culture is included more and more into daily life of the Soviet person, being an integral part of a socialist way of life. Its role in modern conditions when the high level of the equipment and automation on production, transport and in life inevitably leads to decrease in a physical activity — the hypokinesia (see) having an adverse effect on health is especially big. As a real and effective way of overcoming this state serve occupations physical culture.

The main means of physical culture are physical exercises — specially picked up movements and their complexes applied to strengthening of health and physical development. Physical exercises use in mass sports and recreational work, in hygienic, production and other forms of gymnastics (see), at sports and tourism (see).

Numerous epidemiological, clinical and pilot studies showed that the people who are regularly engaged in physical exercises have higher nonspecific stability of an organism and higher immunity, are ill much less often, they are steadier against influence of various adverse factors of the environment (overheating, overcooling, oxygen insufficiency, effect of toxicants), physical and nervous overworks (see Prevention primary). Incidence of acute respiratory diseases among the working industrial enterprises which are systematically going in for physical culture is much lower, than at the workers who are not engaged in it. Physically trained people are less subject to cardiovascular diseases as metabolic rate, activity of the blood circulatory systems and breath, immunity are closely connected with the level of a physical activity of an organism.

More low level of its blood supply, decrease in energy resources are characteristic of physically inactive persons uneconomical oxygen consumption by a myocardium; it in turn increases vulnerability of heart at exercise stresses and various adverse effects on an organism (see Heart).

Treatment of initial forms of an idiopathic hypertensia (see), coronary heart disease is frequent (see) and nek-ry other diseases it can be reached only thanks to normalization of the motive mode, observance of other requirements of a healthy lifestyle.

The physical culture favorably influences an organism during all human life. At elderly people it promotes preservation of physical effeciency and intellectual activity, normalizes a metabolism, in particular content of cholesterol and a ratio of lipid fractions in blood, improves a trophicity and blood supply of a myocardium, brain and other bodies, increases utilization of oxygen fabrics. It is shown that functionality and efficiency of physically trained persons at the age of 50 — 60 years often are higher to what 30-year-old, not going in for physical culture.

However the positive impact of physical culture on an organism can be provided only at adequate loadings, a rational work-rest schedule, regular medical control (see) and self-checking (see Self-checking of the athlete).

Means of physical culture widely apply in system of complex treatment and rehabilitation (see) in hospitals, policlinics, sanatoria and others to lay down. - the prof. institutions (see. Physiotherapy exercises). Elements of physiotherapy exercises use in mass physical culture, napr, on occupations in groups of health with elderly people, and also in physical training of school students and students with deviations in the state of health and physical development.

Physical training as organized process is carried out in preschool institutions, in all types of educational institutions, in Armed Forces of the country, at the industrial enterprises, in collective farms, state farms and to lay down. - the prof. institutions. The state provides going in for physical culture sports bases, stock, medical aid. Classes are given in special plans and programs by specialists-preiodavateli, trainers, instructors taking into account age, sex, the states of health, physical fitness.

Physical training of children chest and babyhood are first of all the organization of their motive mode and hardening. Their purpose — to help normal physical and psychological development of the child, the correct formation of the first motive acts. A basis of physical training of children of early age are special gymnastics (see Gymnastics, gymnastics for children of early and preschool age) and massage (see Massage, at children), applied with 1 V2 — 2-month age, and also swimming, training in Krom is admissible to begin by a special technique with 2 — 3 weeks of life of the child. It is possible to carry out gymnastics, massage, swimming and at home after the corresponding instructing of parents. To children of the senior babyhood recommend also to a lasagna, the elementary outdoor games, exercises to the sound of music, etc.

The main attention in physical training of children of preschool age is paid to development of a good bearing and the correct performance of movements during the walking, run, jumps, etc. Physical exercises are carried out in the form of games, imitating movements, use also foot walks, walking on skis, driving on the sledge from mountains, etc. Classes are given by tutors and combined with a hardening (air and solar bathtubs, wet rubdowns, douches, bathing). Special value has the correct physical training of the child in a family: inclusion physical. exercises in a day regimen, development of interest in physical culture, the systematic tempering procedures, etc.

At school age physical training is carried out in the course of training, and out of study — by participation in sports sections, competitions, tourist campaigns, etc. One of forms of such occupations are special physical education classes. In addition, it is recommended to carry out before lessons gymnastics, and during general education lessons — sports minutes.

In the «Main directions of reform of comprehensive and vocational school» approved April (1984) The plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU and adopted at the I session of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the 11th convocation, to physical training attaches great value. Socialist society is interested in that the younger generation grew physically developed, healthy, cheerful, ready to work and protection of the Homeland. At each school, technical training college, in all teaching and educational institutions the gyms and platforms which are well equipped with the equipment and stock shall be created. It is recommended to use more widely for these purposes of base of the sports organizations and clubs, the enterprises and institutions.

Physical training of students and pupils of average special educational institutions is carried out in the course of their training. It pursues the aim to strengthen health of youth, to promote its harmonious development, to increase working capacity. Sports and mass work will be organized in the place of study in sections on different types of sport or in student's sports club. During study in higher education institution, technical school or school pupils shall hit qualifying standards of the GTO complex, and engaged in departments of sports improvement — to receive the sports grade in the chosen sport.

Physical training of adult population is carried out in collectives of physical culture in the place of work, and also in sections of the general physical training and different types of sport at volunteer sports societies. It is directed to strengthening of health, all-round physical development, increase in working capacity and labor productivity.

Forms of sports and recreational work are diverse: morning hygienic exercises (see Charging), production gymnastics, occupations in the groups of health, female gymnastics, a hardening and winter swimming organized at the enterprises and stadiums, in the sports clubs created at the place of residence, tourist campaigns on the weekend, departures out of the city in «trains of health», mass competitions in different types of sport («Day of the runner», «Day of the swimmer», «Day of the skier», etc.) * Many enterprises have «workshops of health», «zones of health» — the country green sites intended for rest and occupations by physical exercises. The physical culture in rest houses, sanatoria, boarding houses, tourist complexes is widely used.

Sport — the part of physical culture, systematic physical exercises which are carried out in the form of competitions and preparation for them.

The sports training, sports competitions, system of maintenance of the athlete enter a concept of sport (rehabilitation). The sport promotes the maximum disclosure of functionality of an organism, psychological, moral, esthetic education of the person, is used for rest and carrying out leisure. It is also one of the most popular and mass forms of friendly international relations. Its distinctive feature — aspiration to achievement of high sports result what considerable exercise and psychological stresses of athletes are connected with.

Nek-ry sports have centuries-old history and developed from original physical exercises in labor and military activity. Run, jumps, throwing, raising of weights, rowing, swimming, etc., in particular, concern to them. A part of types of modern sport was created in the second half to the 19 and first half of 20 centuries — numerous sports, artistic and rhythmic gymnastics, modern pentathlon, figure skating on pipits, sports orientation, sports tourism, etc.; on the basis of the developing equipment there were automobile, motorcycle, bicycle, aviation sports, scuba diving.

Since the beginning of carrying out in 1896 the largest international competitions — the Olympic Games (see) modern sports develop in the majority of the countries of the world. From the middle of 19 century in the capitalist countries there is also professional sport — a form of the spectacular industry, business, a source of profits for businessmen and a subsistence sport smenov - professional.

The professional sport does not practice in the socialist countries, in them the sport relies on the grass-roots sports movement directed by the state and public organizations and also on evidence-based system of physical training. The fact that athletes of the USSR and other socialist countries come to the forefront in world sport is also explained by it. Progress of the Soviet athletes on the international scene, in the European championships, the world, the Olympic Games is the evidence of systematic and consistent policy of the party and government aimed at the harmonious, all-round development of the Soviet people.

In our country there are three main forms of sport: mass amateur, sport as subject and elite sport. The mass amateur sport is used for strengthening of health, increase or maintenance of working capacity, development of physical qualities, rest, entertainment. The sport as a subject is included into the program of all educational institutions and physical. preparation in army. The elite sport allows on the basis of identification of individual opportunities and abilities of the person in a certain sport (by means of profound specialization of occupations, individual approach to educational training process, uses of high, but adequate functional loads) to achieve the maximum, record results. The sport arms with it mass practice of physical training naibis more scarlet effective remedies and by methods of physical improvement. Records in elite sport, progress of athletes in the international, national and other types of competitions create a moral incentive for development of mass sport and occupations by physical culture.

The sports which gained the international recognition on the nature of activity of the athlete conditionally divide into a number of groups: easy and weightlifting, swimming, rowing, skating and skiing; combat sports — boxing, fight, fencing; sports — soccer, hockey, volleyball, basketball, etc.; the sports using special weapon for defeat of the purpose — firing bullet, from onions, at the stand; competitions in skill of control of vehicles — bicycle, the motorcycle, a glider, the yacht, an iceboat, etc.; ability to manage the created models — motorsport, aviasport, sudomodelny sport; the game single combats constructed on abstract and logical composition thinking of rivals — chess, checkers. Special sport — horse, based on skill of a dressage of a horse.

Sports can be classified also by the physical qualities which are preferential developed at the person: to force — heavy fly away

, a throwing, etc.; to speed — sprint, fencing, etc.; endurance — run and swimming on long distances, rowing, skiing; dexterity — gymnastics, acrobatics, figure skating on pipits; to a combination of various qualities — fight, boxing, sports.

The characteristic of separate sports, their influence on a human body, features of medical control — see articles devoted to separate sports, napr, acrobatics (see), bicycle sport (see), rowing (see), track and field athletics (see), weightlifting (see) (soccer (see).

In the course of correctly constructed regular sports training (see the Training) various movement skills and physical qualities form and improved, the fitness which is characterized by a complex of morphological and functional shifts in activity of an organism, improvement of mechanisms of regulation and adaptation to exercise stresses, acceleration of processes of recovery that increases sports working capacity gradually develops and gives the chance to achieve high sports result. These changes are defined at comprehensive medical examination of the athlete in a condition of muscular rest, at exercise stresses and in the course of recovery after them (see. Medical control).


At inadequate loadings, deviations in the state of health, disturbances, etc. the overtraining, an overstrain can develop, to-rye are followed by decrease in sports working capacity, structural and functional changes of an organism.

Influence of sports activities on activity of physiological systems is caused by the main orientation of a training, volume and intensity of the performed work, level of readiness and age of the athlete. Short-term muscular work at occupations, napr, gymnastics, fencing, preferential influences a nervous system and skeletal muscles: force and speed of muscular contractions increase, the volume of muscles at the expense of a gain of muscle bulk increases, function of analyzers is improved, lability of the neuromuscular device increases, ability to react quickly to various irritants and situations increases. Extent of change of the autonomic nervous system at the same time is rather small; cardiovascular, respiratory and other systems adapt to the short-term muscular exercises which are quite often made at breath holding and a natuzhivaniye, to inherent these sports.

Long muscular work of moderate intensity (run, rowing, ski race, walking, etc.), and also the exercises aimed at the development of endurance cause changes preferential from the autonomic nervous system and exchange processes: contents and activity of a number of enzymes increase, processes of exchange amplify, utilization of oxygen improves, the expenditure of fats an organism raises. There is a moderate hypertrophy of a myocardium, its sokratitelny ability increases, maximal ventilation of lungs increases. Various systems of an organism in a condition of muscular rest function more economically: at the athletes training on endurance bradycardia, more low speed of a blood-groove (see the Hemodynamics), decrease in the ABP and level of standard metabolism are usually observed. At exercise stresses the minute volume of heart can increase up to 30 l and more, a stroke output to 150 — 180 ml; a cordial rhythm to 200 and more blows in 1 min., the ABP to 180 — 200 mm of mercury. and more with bystry recovery to norm.

Sports activities cause essential changes of the musculoskeletal device: increase in diameter of a diaphysis of tubular bones, a thickening of a compact layer and places of an attachment of sinews, a hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, increase in force and speed of reduction of muscles, increase in contents of a myoglobin in them. In blood the quantity of erythrocytes and hemoglobin increases. Also other adaptation changes from various bodies and systems are observed.

Regular trainings by sport usually begin at school age. In the USSR the sport among children school students gained broad development: numerous sports sections at comprehensive schools, technical training colleges, nurseries and junior sports schools, children's sections in collectives of physical culture, volunteer sports societies, etc. work. Mass competitions of school students, each 2 years — All-Union school sports contests are annually held.

Correctly organized sports activities positively influence health and physical development of children. It is confirmed by comparison of results of medical inspections of the young athletes and school students of the same age who are engaged only according to the general program of physical training.

In a crust, time decrease in age of the young athletes doing not only by sports, traditional for children, such as figure skating on pipits, gymnastics, acrobatics, fencing, etc., but also the sports developing endurance is observed. Early specialization in the majority of sports became an indispensable condition of future sports progress. Its efficiency is caused by high ductility of a children's organism, good its adaptability to exercise stresses.

Sports training of children of school age is based in the USSR on scientific fundamentals of pedagogics and medicine, is directed to improvement and all-round physical development of children. The age is younger, the bigger specific weight in a training belongs to versatile physical training. Are important: correct definition of starting date of training: children to the physical exercises inherent in these or those sports, and also starting date of a special training and participation in competitions, group of children on age for joint occupations, rationing of loadings according to age features, careful medical control. Age gradation for participation in competitions are defined by rules of competitions in each sport. Achievement of high sports results — destiny of gifted, talented athletes. For the purpose of their identification the system of selection of children and teenagers on morfofunktsionalny indicators — growth, weight, features of physical development, a constitution is developed for each sport, etc.

People of advanced ages with the remained functionality of an organism can participate in competitions within the age groups. However than advanced age, that more the training shall have recreational character, without putting the task achievement of sports result.

Timely and his gradual «exit» from elite sport is important for preservation of health of the athlete. At the persons which suddenly stopped sports activities involutional shifts quickly develop: the metabolism changes,

the mass of skeletal muscles decreases, body weight due to development of a hypodermic fatty tissue grows, functionality of bodies and systems decrease, various morbid conditions develop. Normalization of activity of an organism in such cases is possible only during the resuming of occupations with reduced loadings or replacement of one type of activity with another. Regular medical control is especially important for athletes of advanced ages (see) and self-checking.

In a crust, time the female sport gains ground. Due to anatomo - physiological mi features of a female body sports competitions for men and women (except separate types of equestrian sport, firing) carry out separately; nek-ry sports (boxing, fight, pole vaults, weightlifting, etc.) only men are engaged. Plasticity, grace, feeling of a rhythm and balance inherent to women caused emergence of specifically female sports: rhythmic gymnastics, synchronized swimming, exercises on balance in artistic gymnastics. Separate international sports federations began to enter for women of a competition in run on long distances, to marathon race, separate exercises in a raising of weights in recent years. However yet there are no convincing data confirming expediency of such undertakings.

The sports training of women differs in restriction of the loadings connected with significant force and endurance, steady static stresses, collisions, concussion of internals or leading to uneven development of muscles. In trainings of women exercises on flexibility, plasticity, dexterity, balance, beauty and grace of movements are much more widely used.

The management of physical culture and sport in the USSR carry out Committee on physical culture and sport at Council of ministers of the USSR and public organizations — the volunteer sports societies (VSS), departmental sports societies (Spartak, «Manpower reserves», CSKA, DOSAAF), sports clubs, sports federations on sports, etc. Boards of DSO, sports federations and other public sports bodies (from regional to central offices and presidiums of all-Union federations) are elected at conferences — the supreme governing body of this organization. DSO of labor unions work under the direct management of Councils of labor unions, their central governing body is All-Union council of volunteer sports societies. Work of the public sports organizations is based on industry (professional) and territorial (city, regional, etc.) to the principle. DSO work according to the adopted charters, and federations on sports — by the approved provisions. They will organize sports and mass, recreational and educational and sports work in collectives, improve skills of teachers and trainers, train public instructors, hold sports competitions and sports contests, help sports collectives and clubs with promotion of physical culture, watch a condition of sports bases, plan construction new, etc. The main local public sports organization are collectives of physical culture at the enterprises, in institutions, Collective farms, state farms, educational institutions.

There is the state system of qualification and estimated standards for various contingents playing physical culture and sports: pupils, voyenno

employees, for persons, professional activity to-rykh demands a certain level of physical fitness (pilots, astronauts, submariners, etc.).

Requirements to physical development and physical fitness of various age groups of the population are determined by the GTO sports complex, and to the level of sporting achievements by different types of sport — «Uniform all-Union sports classification».

Preparation and retraining of personnel for work in the field of physical culture and sport in our country over 100 f-tov physical training at teacher training colleges and universities carry out 23 in-that physical culture, 26 technical schools. Over 330 thousand teachers, trainers and other specialists are engaged in system of physical culture and sport. In a number of in-t of physical culture faculties of professional development are open for trainers, teachers, organizers of physical culture. In all higher educational institutions there are departments of physical training. Scientific and methodical conferences, seminars, symposiums are regularly held, the newspapers and magazines which are taking up questions of physical culture and sport are issued.

Research the scientific research institute of system of Committee on physical culture and sport, industry Scientific Research Institute M3 SSSR and federal republics conduct, the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, departments and problem laboratories of higher education institutions. Leading research institutes — All-Union research in-t of physical culture of Committee on physical culture and sport, Research institute of medical problems of physical culture M3 of USSR, Central research in-t of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of the USSR. Coordinates and directs research on physical culture and sport Committee on physical culture and sport through special management and scientific council, and its medical aspects — Scientific council of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on medical problems of physical culture and sport.

Main directions of scientific research: further improvement of the state system of physical culture and sport; physical culture as factor of increase in resistance of an organism to various influences, strengthenings of health, increase in working capacity and longevity; massovoozdorovitelny sports work and increase in its efficiency; improvement of training of high-class athletes; pedagogical, psychological and medicobiological justification of training of young athletes, physical training of children, teenagers, young men, girls, rationing of exercise stresses depending on age and a floor; medical control of various groups of the population playing physical culture and sport.

Enter tasks of bodies of health care: every possible assistance of times

to twisting and use of physical culture and sport in to lay down. - the prof. the purposes; medical service playing physical culture and sports; help in training of athletes and achievement of high sports results by them; broad promotion of a fi-zicheskoa of culture as recreational and medical factor, increase in knowledge of medics in questions of physical culture and sport.

In the USSR in the world obligatory, free medical control for playing physical culture and sport is introduced for the first time, the system of medical ensuring the multimillion sports movement, preparation and professional development of shots is created, the new industry of clinical and preventive medicine — sports medicine was created (see), the medical specialty «Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy Exercises» is approved. The obligatory discipline «Medical control and physiotherapy exercises» is entered into curricula of medical in-t, the relevant departments are created.

Medical providing physical culture and sport includes: medical inspection and the admission of participants to occupations; constant medical control behind health, physical development and readiness of athletes and athletes; the prevention of diseases and injuries on occupations and trainings; to lay down. - the prof. work and rehabilitation actions; control for a dignity. condition of places of occupations, competitions, placement and food of participants; medical providing competitions; sanitary and educational and educational work with athletes; scientific justification of system of physical training, mass physical culture and sports training, synthesis of experience of medical observations and implementation of results in to the practician; participation in planning and correction of training process, increase in knowledge of teachers and trainers in the field of sports medicine.

Medical control of physical training is exercised by doctors to lay down. - the prof. of institutions and specialists doctors in the field of sports medicine and physiotherapy exercises. In the country it is created and successfully the medical and sports service including medical and sports offices and clinics, doctors specialists developsialist on control of physical training, sports activities and physiotherapy exercises. By 1984 in the country more than 400 medical and sports clinics functioned. Offices of medical control will be organized at policlinics,-tsakh, in educational institutions, sports clubs and on sports constructions.


Medical and sports clinics (see the Clinic) perform organizational and methodical management of the general network of health care in the field of physical culture and sport, make dispensary observation for the leading athletes, pupils of nurseries and junior sports schools, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation actions, medical-sporting consultations, improve skills of doctors, teachers and trainers, are engaged in promotion of physical culture, scientific and methodical activity. In staff of these institutions — the doctors who are carrying out medical examination, specialists in medical control of athletes and doctors of narrow medical specialties. The modern medical and sports clinic has stationary and recovery departments, is equipped with the equipment for comprehensive inspection and treatment of athletes.

Control of physical training of school students is imposed on the school doctor. Depending on the state of health and physical training of school students for occupations physical culture divide into three groups: the main, preparatory and special. Healthy children, and also the having insignificant deviations in the state of health but which are rather physically prepared enter a basic group. To school students of this group occupations are allowed in full but to training programs of physical training, hitting qualifying standards of the GTO complex, occupation in sports sections, participation in competitions. Include children with insignificant deviations in the state of health or physical development which are not possessing sufficient physical training in preparatory group. They are engaged according to the same training programs of physical training, as school students of a basic group, but with the increased term of passing of the school program and hitting qualifying standards of the GTO complex. The special group is made by children with considerable deviations in the state of health (constant or temporality), but allowed to educational and production work. These school students are engaged according to special programs of physical training. If necessary for them will organize the occupations considering the nature of a disease and functionality of an organism. Medical control of pupils of average and higher educational institutions is conducted by the doctors and doctors of student's policlinics working in them. On the basis of medical inspections of students divide into the same medical groups, as school students. Medical control of the workers and pensioners playing physical culture and mass sports is carried out by doctors of vrachebnofizkulturny offices of sports societies, out-patient clinics, policlinics, sanatoria dispensaries. Medical overseeing by the leading and young athletes carry out medical and sports clinics.

Training of doctors in the field of medical control and physiotherapy exercises departments of physical training, medical control (sports medicine) and physiotherapy exercises of medical in-t conduct, retraining and professional development — departments of sports medicine and physiotherapy exercises of in-t of improvement of doctors, large medical and sports clinics. With the same purpose of establishment of Committee on physical culture and sport, the Ministries of Health of the USSR and federal republics, public organizations hold seminars, courses, scientific and scientific and methodical conferences.

Created in the country All-Union scientific about-in on physiotherapy exercises and sports medicine has departments in all republics and the large cities. At Committee on physical culture and sport there is a Federation of sports medicine of the USSR — the supreme advisory public body on problems of sports medicine; the federation is included into society as its section. The federation of sports medicine of the USSR is a member of the International federation of sports medicine.

The Soviet sports medicine holds big authority on the international scene. The Soviet doctors and scientists actively participate in work of the international medico-sports organizations — Federations of sports medicine, Association of the Olympic doctors, medical commissions of the International Olympic Committee and the international sports federations, regularly make reports and messages on the International congresses of sports medicine, conferences and symposiums.

Experience of the Soviet system of medical providing physical culture and sport is used in the socialist countries which achieved great success in development of physical culture and sport. Between the sports and medical organizations of the socialist countries there is close cooperation.

All efforts on development of physical culture and sport finally are bent on preservation of health of the Soviet people, ensuring longevity and are an essential link of the complex primary prevention of diseases of programs-rakhmmy performed in our country (see L of a rofilakpgik primary).

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