PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

FYZIKO-HIMYChESKAYa BIOLOGY — the field of biological science combining the physicochemical directions of biological disciplines on the basis of wide use of the ideas and methods of chemistry, mathematics, physical chemistry for studying of processes of life activity at various levels of the organization of biological systems.

Importance and relevance of tasks, solvable physical. - chemical biology, are noted in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further development of physical and chemical biology and biotechnology and use of their achievements in medicine, agriculture and the industry» (1981).

Emergence physical. - chemical biology it is caused by natural tendencies of development of biological science. Bases physical. - chemical approach in biology were put by the works J1. Galvani, A. Lavoisier, E. Du Bois-Reymond, G. Helmholtz, W. Nernst, Zh. Loeb, K. A. Timiryazev, I. M. Sechenov, A. N. Bach, N. K. Koltsov and other scientists representing various sciences and aiming at their synthesis.

Physical. - the chemical biology combines sections of biochemistry (see), bioorganic chemistry, molecular biology (see), biophysics (see), molecular immunology (see Immunochemistry) and geneticists (see. Molecular genetics). The number of the disciplines developing this direction grows.

In the last decades physical. - the chemical biology achieved considerable success in studying of structure and function of nucleic acids (see) and proteins (see), molecular mechanisms of effect of hormones (see), vitamins (see) and other biologically active agents, structure and function biol. membranes (see Membranes biological), their roles in transport of substances, transformations of energy (see the Metabolism and energy), perception and information transfer, in studying of specific regulators of transfer of nervous impulses (see. Nervous impulse), regulators of behavior (see Higher nervous activity), a dream (see), memories (see), in a research of photo biological processes (see Photobiology), the phenomena of radiation and chemical mutagenesis (see). With achievements physical. - chemical biology connect perspectives of radical restructurings in a number of industries, agriculture, medicine, napr, development of biotechnology with use of methods of genetic engineering (see), improvement of methods of selection of animals and plants, receiving new classes of food stuffs, etc. Various directions physical. - chemical biology have paramount value for a research patol. processes in an organism at the molecular and membrane levels, clarifications of the mechanism of hereditary diseases, effects of medicines and physical factors, for development of physical diagnostic methods and treatment of diseases.

F. F. Litvin.

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