PHRENOLOGY (Greek phren mind, reason + logos the doctrine) — the antiscientific concept about a possibility of recognition of mental features of the person in a shape of his skull.
Main representations F. are developed by F. Gall. He considered that each mental (spiritual) ability of the person has the body in cerebral hemispheres. In total such bodies 37 and in a form they remind pyramids. What more expressed at the person this or that mental ability, especially the appropriate authority in a brain is developed. Reflection of strong development of one and underdevelopments of other bodies is formation of cambers and hollows on a surface of cerebral hemispheres. To the size and a shape of a brain, a relief of its surface prpbli-zitelno there correspond the size, a form and a relief of a surface of a skull. Therefore as approved F. Gall, but to results of kraniometrichesky researches (see. To Rani the ohm of an etra I) can be judged development of mental abilities and, therefore, a spiritual appearance of investigated. Frenolog made special cards and schemes of topography of bodies of mental abilities, allocated several types of the skulls different from average type. Being based on the data of measurements of a skull, they tried to classify human characters, to establish phrenologic features of tribes, races, nationalities, etc.
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Supporters F. applied for creation of the discipline which is intermediate between experimental physiology of a brain and speculative psychology tried to exert impact on development of pedagogics, law, art, etc. However the doctrine Galya had many opponents — physiologists, anatomists, psychologists and doctors. Especially ardent opponents were the physiologist M. Flu-rans. psychiatrist F. 11th quenelle. Against false, antiscientific situations F. the Russian physicians E. O. Mukhin, I. E. Dyadjkovsky, I. T. Glebov, etc. acted. They emphasized harm and an inaccuracy of concepts Galya. The Russian Academy of Sciences also rejected phrenology. Nek-ry ideas F. theories of inborn crime of Lokhmbrozo influenced formation further of reactionary doctrines, napr (S. of Lomb-roso).
Scientific insolvency of a kranioskopiya and kraniometriya as methods of a research of sincere abilities were proved quickly enough. At the same time T. contained also a number of materialistic representations, progressive for the time, in particular about a brain as body of mental activity, about organic communication of a structure of a brain and its functions, etc. Doctrine F. Galya served also as an incentive for further studying of morphology and physiology of a nervous system, for development of anthropometry (see) and anthropology (see).
Bibliography: And l of l and Sh p at r both e and m,
Issled - <shpya about a nervous system in general and about lt<.:g.nop in particular, the lane with fr., Sib., 1*10; To and N of N and and x Yu. V. Istoriya of psychiatry, page 222, L., 1929, bibliogr.; L and with and c y Yu. P. N, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov and the Moscow school of neuropathologists, page 15, M., 1961. IO. II. Lisitsyn.