From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The PHOTO in m of e d and c and not —

receiving on with a vetochuvstvita lny materials of images of bodies and fabrics for the purpose of diagnosis, reflection of dynamics of pathological processes and results of treatment.

In pastes, time is known a large number of methods F., used in medicine. An important stage of use F in medicine is photography of hollow bodies, a cut began in the middle of 20 century when A. A. Gladkov developed a complex of the equipment for photography of a throat, bronchial tubes and a gullet. D. D. Maksutov and G. F. Feldstein for the first time received F. a mucous membrane of a stomach by means of the tiny camera designed by them strengthened on the end of the probe and entered into a gastric cavity through a gullet. In the Odessa scientific research institute of eye diseases and fabric therapy of M3 of USSR of V. P. Filatov the research which allowed to design the special equipment for stereoscopic shooting of separate human organs and animal, anatomic drugs, etc. was executed. In a crust, time the industry releases the specialized photoequipment allowing to carry out photography of the most different medical objects. An important role in development medical F. play achievements modern color F. Naiboley available receiving color slides (slides).

Nek-ry rather simple types medical F., naira, photography of outward of the patient, separate parts of a body and sites of skin, are feasible by means of ordinary SLR cameras and simple supplementary equipments. These devices are suitable also for photography of a surgery field. During the shooting of microsurgeries use the operative microscope (see) supplied with a special photoprefix. Photography of band bodies is made the low-format cameras which are included in the package of endoscopes (see Endoscopy).

Photography of front department of an eye is carried out by means of ordinary SLR cameras. Photography of details of a cornea and a crystalline lens requires illumination of an object a narrow light bunch what apply a slit lamp to (see). The special microscope providing increase by 200 — 400 times allows to receive the photo of an endothelium of a cornea. Patol. changes of a front surface of a cornea can be revealed by means of a keratografiya (see). For studying of diseases of an eyeground, and also a research of an iris of a cornea, a conjunctiva and a sclera use a method fluorescent a'p and about of a raffia (see).

T. in infrared beams (length of waves of 760 — 1000 nanometers) on special photographic materials successfully apply to a research of saphenas, reactions of a pupil in complete darkness, and also to definition of structure of a cataract and clarification of a condition of the sites of front department of an eye located behind the dimmed cornea. Photography in infrared beams is based on use of the electron-optical converters transforming infrared radiation to the visible image.

Apply a method of a termografiya to obtaining the photographic image formed by own caloradiance of a body of the person (see). In literature there are data about F. an eyeground, nek-ry types of tumors, etc. on a spektrozonalny film. The color positive image, received at the same time unnatural on the coloring, quite often contains details, to-rye it is impossible to reveal by means of other methods.

Photography in ultraviolet rays (length of waves of 350 — 390 nanometers) gives the chance to accurately define borders of poorly pigmented sites of skin and a sclera, to reveal initial stages of caries of teeth.

T. can serve for measurement on pictures of the sizes of nek-ry medical objects, napr, diameter of a pupil, caliber of vessels of an eyeground, a squint angle, degree of an exophthalmos, etc. Determination of radiuses of curvature of a cornea and crystalline lens is possible by photography of the eye lit with a narrow light bunch (a fotooftalmometrichesky method). The microphoto is widely applied in medicine (see).

The photo gained considerable distribution in forensic medicine and is applied with various purposes. For imprinting serves large-scale, metric, reproductive, signaletichesky, projective, stereoscopic F.; for a research — the microphoto (in the passing and reflected light, phase and contrast, darkfield, in the polarized light, etc.), macro - and microphotography in infrared, ultraviolet rays, colors dividing photographing, photography of a visible luminescence, strengthening of contrasts, superfast photographing, etc.

Large-scale F. use at survey and a research of corpses for imprinting available on their body and clothes of damages and traces, and also during the photographing of material evidences (see). On a large-scale picture it is possible to measure the photographed object. Metric F. — measuring photographing of a corpse on site of incident — allows to imprint a situation of the scene, a pose of a corpse, a condition of his clothes, localization available on a body and clothes of damages and traces, to take necessary measurements on a picture. Reproductive F. serves, in particular, for reproduction from photographic images of separate details for the subsequent increase, studying or demonstration. Signaletichesky (primetoopisatelny) F. represents system of specially developed methods of photographing of persons for the purpose of their registration, search and the subsequent identification. In court. - medical examination such shooting is used at a research of unknown corpses for their further identification. Before photographing the face of a corpse is given a look, the closest to intravital.

Projective F. allows to receive a mirror image of one of two photographed objects for carrying out a comparative research, napr, pictures of the tool of a crime and marks left by it, to make the press from the combined negatives at identification of the personality on a skull and the intravital photo, etc. For imprinting court. - medical objects quite often use color F. Osobenno its use is reasonable when reproduction of color has independent sou of - medical value, and also if necessary to show a difference in color of details, imperceptible in black-and-white pictures. Stereoscopic F. serves for photographing of corpses on site of incident, photography of damages and traces on soft and bone fabrics, clothes, tools of a crime, foreign bodys, etc. to Mikrofotografiya (see) in a transmitted light it is used at a research gistol. drugs, hair, fibers of a plant and artificial origin, crystals, drugs of sperm, colostrum, etc.; the microphoto in a reflected light — at photography not burned down a poroshinok, the smallest foreign bodys, napr, particles of glass, the soil, particles of a plant origin, etc. During the shooting of uncolored or low-contrast objects (drugs of sperm, colostrum, prints of a cuticle of a hair, fibers) apply the phase and contrast microfilming allowing to reveal the building blocks of drug differing among themselves on index of refraction or on thickness. At microphotography of crystals, foreign debris, etc. sometimes resort to a microfilming In a dark field. For identification in microdrugs of foreign particulates, napr, glass dust in drug from wound Caen - la, microphotography make in the polarized light. T.

in infrared beams use for detection of the latent and hardly noticeable hemorrhages, detection of the foreign bodys located directly under skin, a soot and a poroshinok in the field of inlet opening of a bullet wound and on dark fabrics of clothes at photography of the person of the corpse covered with livors mortis, identifications of the spots of blood on clothes masked by color of fabric, etc. (see. Infrared radiation, use in court. - medical examination). Photography serves in ultraviolet rays for detection of the washed-away traces of blood. Color-separation F. use during the photographing of material evidences when it is necessary to show a difference in color of details of an object, to-rye at usual photography are reproduced equally. Photography of a visible luminescence is applied at a research of material evidences to imprinting of a form, the sizes and localization indiscernible or few distinguishable imposings, napr, lubricating oils p other substances.

Bibliography: Akopov V. I., Prispo

a sobleniye for macro - and microphotography during the use of the electron-optical converter, Court. - medical examination, t. 14, No. 3, page 52, 1971; it e, the Device for direct stereomicroscopy and microphotography in ultraviolet rays, in the same place, t. 15, No. 1, page 54, 1972;

Vail Yu. S. and Baranovsky Ya. M. Infrared beams in clinical diagnosis and medicobiological researches, L., 1969; And -

with about N of X. L. Photography in infrared beams, the lane with English, M., 1982; Gladkov A. A. Endophotocinematography in otorhinolaryngology, Chisinau, 1959; Laboratory and special methods of a research in forensic medicine, under the editorship of V. I. Pashkova and V. V. Tomilin, page 26, M., 1975; Ratnevsky A. N. Use of light filters at photography of corpses and living persons, in book: Vopr. court. travmat., under the editorship of. A. M. Hamburg, century 3, page 155, Kiev, 1971; The Neighbour-to about Yu. I. A projection photo printing of tissue specimens through a photographic enlarger, Court. - medical examination, t. 18, No. 1, page 43, 1975; Takho-Godi of X. M. Posobiye on bases of the scientific photo in forensic medicine, M., 1965, bibliogr.; C of e p e l e in Yu. A. and about r about x about in L. I. Endoscopic devices for gastroenterology, M., 1976; Shayer E. G. Use of the photo in medicine, M., 1974, bibliogr.

E. G. Shayer; X. M. Takho-Godi (court.)*