FONIATRYYa (Greek phone a sound, a voice + iatreia treatment) — the section of otorhinolaryngology studying questions of physiology, pathology, treatment and prevention of diseases of the voice device of the person.
Origin F. treats an extreme antiquity, however its scientific development began after development by Garcia (M. Garcia) a method of a laringoskopiya (1854). Within 60 — 70 years after the invention of a laringoskopichesky method observations collected, results of scientific research on functional frustration of the voice device during approach of puberty, and also results of stroboscopic researches of a throat were analyzed and generalized (see). These years the guides to physiology of the voice device, treatment and hygiene of a singing voice were published. In 20 — the 40th 20 century studying of a condition of phonatory bands at reproduction of the sounds different in height and force was carried out, questions of treatment and the prevention of occupational diseases of the voice device, diseases of the voice device at children, bonds of endocrine system with the voice device were developed. Further features of breath of the singer were studied during singing, value of a nasal cavity, nasopharynx and adnexal bosoms of a nose for registration of a sound and diction during the singing therefore diagnosis of disturbances of a singing voice became possible; the singing mode in the period of a mutation at boys and girls is developed.
Researches in the area F. radiologies, surgical stomatology, orthodontics, psychology, pedagogics, achievements in the field of histology, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy are conducted with use of data of otorhinolaryngology, neurology, psychiatry, internal diseases, endocrinology.
Widespread introduction mikrolarin
state copies (see Laringoskopiya), la-ringostroboskoiii (see Stroboskopiya), fibrolaringoskopiya, baked
the trawl analysis of a voice, microsurgery (see) and cryosurgeries (see) in foniatrichesky practice increased efficiency and quality of diagnostic and to lay down. - the prof. of the help to workers of the vocal professions and professions connected with big speech loading.
In modern a wedge, to practice in the USSR the qualified help at pathology of the voice device is given only by specialists - fo-niatry or the otorhinolaryngologists who had training on a phoniatrics. On the basis of large BCs and policlinics foniatrichesky offices are created, to-rye provide in full with all types of the help of patients with voice frustration. Foniatrichesky offices make also dispensary observation behind persons of vocal and speech professions (see Medical examination), selection of the persons coming to pedagogical and theatrical and musical educational institutions, examination of working ability of patients with pathology of the voice device, a dignity. - a gleam, work on hygiene of a voice and prevention of voice frustration. Bibliography: Egorov A. M. Hygiene of a voice and its physiological aspects, M., 1962; Yermolaev V. G., Lebedeva N. F. and M about r about z about in V. P. Guide to a phoniatrics, L., 1970, bibliogr.; Zaritskiyl. And., V. A. Trinos and L. A Trinos. Practical phoniatrics, Kiev, 1984, bibliogr.; M and t r i-novich-Modzheevska A. Patofiziologiya of the speech, a voice and hearing, the lane with polsk., Warsaw, 1965; Fomichev M. I. Bases of a phoniatrics, L., 1949.
L. M. Telelyaeva.