PHILIPPINES, the Republic of the Philippines — the state in Southeast Asia located on 7107 islands of the Philippine archipelago in the western part of the Pacific Ocean (from them are manned apprx. 800). The area is 299,7 thousand sq.km. Population of 50 million people (1982). The capital —
Ma nila (apprx. 10 million zhit. with suburbs, 1983). The country is divided into 56 provinces; in independent administrative units the large cities are allocated. Ofits. languages — Tagalog and English.
To the middle of 16 century Spaniards took and subordinated to themselves the main part F., and then and all archipelago. As a result of the Philippine national liberating revolution of 1896 — 1898 the independent Philippine republic was proclaimed, but the USA under the pretext of «help» landed on F. the troops. As a result of the American-Philippines - skoy wars of 1899 — 1901 of the USA turned F. in the American colony. In 1934 the USA was forced to provide F. autonomy. In 1941 — 1945 F. were occupied by the Japanese troops. In 1946 the USA recognized F. the sovereign state, however under their pressing F. entered in 1954 the CEATO aggressive block; in the territory of F. the American military bases were placed. In 1962 — 1969 F. participated in aggression against Vietnam.
According to the constitution of 1973,
T. — republic; the legislature belongs to an odnopalatnokhm to national assembly, executive — to council of ministers. The head of state — the president elected for 6 years by general national election (the amendments to the constitution made in 1981).
Apprx. 96% of the territory F. it is the share of the main islands (Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, etc.). The mountainous terrain with heights of 1500 — 2000 m prevails. There are active volcanoes, the frequent earthquakes sometimes having catastrophic character are noted. About a half of the territory occupy the woods.
Climate of the most part of the country equatorial, in the north — subequatorial. Annually there are about 20 typhoons, from them 3 — 4 strong, causing significant damage.
T. preferential agrarian country. The main industry of economy — agriculture, in Krom is occupied St. 50% of able-bodied population; it gives 60% of all export receipts. The main production cultures — rice, corn, sweet potatoes, a cassava, bean, fruit; export cultures — a coconut palm tree, a sugarcane, an abacus (the Manila hemp), coffee, tobacco. The livestock production, fishery, forestry is developed. The industry is presented by the enterprises for mining, to-rymi the country (iron, manganese and copper ore, chromites, mercury, gold, silver) is rich. The light and food industry is developed. There are enterprises steelmaking, chemical, including oil processing, the industries and the enterprises for production of cement. In the country works apprx. 60 large multinational capitalist monopolies. Foreign tourism is developed. Apprx. 25% of able-bodied population — jobless or semiemployed. The St. 40% of the population live in conditions of extreme poverty.
On F. lives the St. 90 nationalities and tribes speaking on relatives among themselves languages and dialects. The largest nationalities — visaya, tagala, ilok, Moro, etc. Sharp irregularity in distribution of the population on the territory of the country is noted. Average density
is 166,8 people on 1 sq.km (1982).
The natural movement of the population, according to official figures, published in WHO materials, in 1979 for 1000 made the population: birth rate — 30,8, the general mortality — 6,5, a natural increase — 24,3; child mortality — 49,1 on 1000 live-born.
In the country prevails inf. pathology. Intestinal infections, tuberculosis, diphtheria, hemorrhagic fever of a dengue, malaria, helminthoses, including a schistosomatosis and ankilostomidoz, and also the pneumonia, diseases connected with a lack of food including insufficiency of vitamin A, beriberi are widespread. Increase in cardiovascular pathology, malignant new growths, mental disorders, and also growth of industrial accidents and as a result of the road accidents is noted. There are data on increase in prevalence of alcoholism and medicinal dependence. In 1978 it was registered: 222 064 cases of flu,
243 509 cases of intestinal infections (including 27 653 cases of an amebiasis, 1385 cases of cholera), 118 587 cases of tuberculosis, 1389 cases of diphtheria, 15 243 cases of whooping cough, 27 842 cases of measles, 35 353 cases of malaria, 7172 cases of a viral hepatitis, 489 cases of a leprosy, etc.
Health system F. it is characterized by existence of various forms of the state, insurance and private-capitalist medicine.
In 1980 the bed fund of stationary institutions made 93 474 beds (19,3 on 10 000 population); there were 1416 general BCs on 70 129 beds, from them 345 (31 850 beds) belonged to the state. 117 rural BCs on 5825 beds and specialized-tsy for rendering the pediatric help (150 beds), for treatment inf functioned. patients (900 beds), for treatment of TB patients (8070 beds), mental disorders (7000 beds), orthopedic diseases (700), maternity homes on 700 beds. The extra hospital help appears out-patient departments of BC, private medical practitioners, in rural areas — the centers of health care. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions on F. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
Insufficient providing the population, especially in rural areas, is noted by high-quality drinking water and satisfactory systems of removal of garbage. In the neighborhood of many industrial enterprises environmental pollution is observed by waste products.
In 1981 in State Healthcare Institutions 7378 doctors (1,49 for 10 thousand population), 1090 dentists, 539 druggists, 9644 nurses, 9470 midwifes, 1928 a dignity worked. inspectors, 78 workers dignity. educations, etc.
Most of workers of health care concentrates in the cities, many leave for work to other countries. Because of difficulty of hiring of personnel for work in rural districts measures for training of workers primary medical - a dignity are undertaken. the help from among locals (see Primary health care), training of traditional doctors and midwifes in skills of modern medicine is provided.
In 1975 training of doctors was carried out in 9 high fur boots and medical in-ta, from to-rykh only Philippine the un-t is public institution, the others — private. Duration of training — 5 years. The release of doctors made 1700 people. There were 86 schools on training of nurses and midwifes. Training of doctors, medical sisters, midwifes is carried out in English.
A scientific medical research is conducted in Ying-those public health care Philippine un-that, in-those food, and also in a number of the research centers and laboratories.
In Manila the Regional office of WHO for the countries of the western part of the Pacific Ocean is located.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 371, Geneva, 1977; The Countries and the people, Foreign Asia, Southeast Asia, under the editorship of 10. V. Bromley, etc., page 256, M., 1979; Philippines, under the editorship of G. I. Levinson, etc., M., 1979; Mejia A., P i z u r-ki H. Royston E. Physician and nurse migration, p. 352, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1983, Geneva, 1983; World health statistics annual, Infectious diseases, cases, p. 197, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual, Vital statistics and causes of death, Geneva, 1982.
V. V. Fedorov.