PHENOLOGY (Greek phaino[mena] of the phenomenon + logos the doctrine) — the doctrine
about the seasonal natural phenomena, terms of their approach and the reasons determining these terms. The term «phenology» was offered by the Belgian botanist Sh. Moeran (1853).
At plants terms of approach of phases of swelling and disclosure of kidneys, blossomings, maturing of seeds and fruits, a leaf fall etc., and also their dependence on conditions of the environment are registered. At animals study features of a current of a life cycle (see) in connection with seasonal and climatic changes, and also various fiziol. the processes dated for these or those periodic vibrations in the environment (see. Biological rhythms, Hibernatation, Hibernation). At the person seasonal changes of various vital manifestations are also observed (a respiratory rhythm, the level of secretion of hormones, etc.).
Phenological observations are conducted at the level of separate organisms, populations, biocenoses and the biosphere in general. On the basis of these observations special programs, atlases of phenophases, etc. are created. Geografo-fenologichesky researches are conducted on the scale of certain natural boundaries, landscapes, provinces, the countries, natural zones and are registered on phenological cards. T. reveals natural indicators, with the help to-rykh define seasonal state of nature of this region, and also predict character of the current growing season. T. forms a basis for drawing up regional calendars of carrying out seasonal works in rural, forest, hunting and other farms.
In medical practice phenological observations use in the analysis of changes immunol. reactivity of a human body, at the organization of prevention of various diseases, especially transmissible (see. Transmissible diseases), and also during the holding actions for fight against parasites — carriers of diseases of the person and animals (see. Parasitic diseases).
Bibliography: Dobrovolsky B. V.
Fenologiya of insects, M., 1 969; Calendar of the nature of the USSR, book 2, M., 1949;
Calendar of the Russian nature, book 1, M., 1948; Podolsk A. S. Phenological forecast, M., 1974; Sh and about -
a lion A. A. and Shchimanyuk A. P. Studying of the seasonal phenomena, M., 19 62;
Shcherb of N about in with to and y N. S. The seasonal phenomena in the nature, M., 1966.
A. A. Zemskaya.