FENAMYN (Phenaminum; synonym: Amphethamini Sulfas, Benzedrine sulfate, Ortedrine, Psychoton, Ba-cephen, Sympamin, Sympatedrine, etc.; GFH, joint venture. A) — psychogogic means. d, 1-1-Fenil-2-
aminopropaia sulfate; (C9H13N)2 • H2S04:
White fine-crystalline powder of bitter taste. Let's dissolve in cold (1:20) and more hotly (1:3) water, it is a little alcohol-soluble, almost insoluble on air; pier. weight (weight) 368,5.
Represents racemic substance of left-and dextrorotatory isomers, from to-rykh dextroizomer is most active. This isomer is produced abroad under the name d-amphetamine.
T. treats psychogogic means (see) with exciting influence on a physical activity (so-called psychomotor stimulators), strengthens influence of a sympathetic nervous system on internals.
At healthy people against the background of exhaustion F. causes acceleration of intellectual activity, increase in attention and intellectual working capacity. Increases also physical endurance, speed and accuracy of performance of motor reactions. Quashes feeling of hunger. Eliminates drowsiness, it is expressed - but weakens action of hypnagogues and anesthetics. Psychogogic effect F. connect with strengthening of function of the central katekholaminergichesky synapses. Under the influence of F. in a synaptic gap noradrenaline and dopamine (see Catecholamines) owing to emission of these mediators from presynaptic nerves and restriction of their return neyronalny capture collect. Excitement of katekholaminergichesky synapses of a brain leads to mobilization of activation mechanisms (first of all thanks to excitement of noradrenergichesky synapses of a reticular formation) and to weakening of function of inactivation mechanisms (e.g., due to strengthening of nigrostriatny dofaminergichesky transfer).
Peripheral sympathomimetic properties F. are shown by narrowing of blood vessels and increase in the ABP, increase and strengthening of cordial reductions. There is also a relaxation of smooth muscles of bronchial tubes, expansion of pupils, increase in contents free fat to - t in blood.
T. it is well soaked up in went. - kish. a path it is also rather slowly brought out of an organism. Efficiency concentrations F. in blood after its single dose keep within 1 V2 — 8 hour. It is metabolized by deamination in a liver. It is removed through kidneys in the form of metabolites and partially in not changed look.
In modern medical practice F. has limited use. Sometimes it is appointed once for overcoming intellectual fatigue and increase in physical effeciency. In psychiatric practice F. apply at a narcolepsy (see), and also to elimination of the nek-ry frustration (drowsiness, slackness, apathy, an adynamy) which are effects of encephalitis and other diseases. In obstetrics F. occasionally apply at weakness of patrimonial activity.
Appoint inside the adult 0,005 — 0,01 g of 1 — 2 time a day. The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,01 g, daily 0,02 g.
Side effect F. it is characterized by the expressed excitement of c. N of page, followed by sleeplessness. Besides, F. causes arterial hypertension, tachycardia, dizziness, nausea, disturbances of a cordial rhythm. Eyforiziruyushchy effect of drug can be the cause of development of medicinal dependence (see). In this regard in the USSR Phenaminum is carried to the list of drugs (see).
Acute poisoning F. is followed by the feeling of alarm developing sometimes into panic fear, aggression. There are psychotic states, for to-rykh typically existence of auditory hallucinations and nonsense and lack of disorder of consciousness less often. At poisonings F. vegetative frustration (tachycardia, hypertensia, a mydriasis) are sharply expressed. In hard cases there are spasms and coma. Therapy of poisoning comes down to the actions directed to removal of drug from went. - kish. path and its removal from blood. As symptomatic means use neuroleptics, somnolent and anti-adrenergic means. Hron. poisoning develops usually at abuse F. also it is characterized by hallucinatory paranoid psychosis which on a wedge, it is difficult for picture to distinguish from a paranoid form of schizophrenia (see). In experimental medicine F. use for creation of models psikhopatol. states, studying of neuromediator processes, etc.
Form of release: tablets on
0,01 g. Storage: in well corked container.
Bibliography: Arushanyan E. B. To it
rokhimichesky and neurophysiological mechanisms of psychogogic action of Phenaminum, Pharm. and toksikol., t. 38, No. 1, page 111, 1975, bibliogr.; it, Neurochemical and neurophysiological organization of a fenaminovy stereotypy of behavior, in the same place, t. 40, JSfa 2, page 221, 1977,
bibliogr.; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by A. Gilman a. o., N. Y.,
1980. E. B. Arushanyan.