PHARMACY (Greek pharmakeia medicine) — the system of scientific knowledge and practical activities devoted to research, production, standardization, a research, storage and issue of pharmaceuticals. T. is a scientific basis of management, economy and the organization of pharmaceutical service.
Main sections modern F. are: the pharmacognosy
(see) studying medicinal
plants; the pharmaceutical chemistry (see) dealing with issues
of synthesis, storage and analysis of pharmaceuticals; the technology of drugs and galenovy drugs
developing scientific bases of production of drugs in industrial and pharmaceutical conditions; organization and economy F., dealing with issues of the organization of the medicinal help to the population and studying of nature of activity of institutions fa r ma tsevtiches, which with l at zhb y.
The simplest methods of research and processing of natural pharmaceuticals were used already in an extreme antiquity. Through many centuries F. developed as a component of pharmaceutical science, the significant role in development to-rogo was played by Hippocrates and K. Galen. The essential contribution to development of pharmaceutical science brought Ibn-Xing in an era of the Middle Ages. Progress of pharmaceutical science, including pharmaceutical knowledge in the Middle Ages was promoted by development of a yatrokhimiya (see), the founder the cut was Paratseljs.
As independent industry of knowledge F. it was allocated 17 at the end — the beginning of 18 centuries when the first works on F appeared. also there was a system of training of specialists pharmatsev-comrade. At a boundary of 19 — 20 centuries there were new forms of the organization of pharmaceutical science — special in-you, laboratories. At the same time the pharmaceutical science began to promote considerably progress chemical - pharm. industries.
In pre-revolutionary Russia F. developed rather slow rates. For bystry development of pharmacy in the USSR the signed V. I had crucial importance. Lenin on December 28, 1918. «Decree about nationalization of drugstores». Afterwards at various stages of socialist construction forms and methods of provision of medicines of the population changed and improved, the material and technical resources of pharmaceutical economy became stronger, the system of scientific research developed in areas F. and preparation of pharmaceutical shots, it was created domestic chemical and pharmaceutical about we needles en by N of wasps of t (see).
During the studying of officinal flora special attention was paid to creation of a medicinal source of raw materials. Carrying out basic researches allowed to determine a source of raw materials by studying of natural resources and to develop scientific and methodical recommendations about use of raw materials and protection of medicinal richness of the USSR.
A lot of work was carried out on studying of chemical structure of medicinal plants, detection of patterns of accumulation and distribution of their active ingredients, allocation and establishment of a structure of biologically active agents, them pharmakol. to activity and creation of new drugs. In sovr. conditions the recent trend F successfully develops. — geochemical ecology of medicinal plants.
FARMERA — ABT the METHOD 223
One of the major directions modern F. basic researches of a structure of substances, the nature of bonds in their molecule, chemical and physical properties are that allows to carry out purposeful synthesis of new physiologically active connections. Creation of new pharmaceuticals and improvement of existing carries out sya in close connection with researches in the field of the pharmaceutical analysis, to-ry is based on methods of classical analytical chemistry. Are developed and strongly entered practice of the pharmaceutical analysis optical (see. Optical techniques of a research), electrochemical (see. Physical chemistry), titrimetric (see. The titrimetric analysis), the adsorptive, hromatografichesky (see the Chromatography), spectrometer (see. With a pektrofotometriya), biological, microbiological and others sovr. methods of the analysis.
Recently in F. considerably the level of researches separate tekhnol increased. processes. Problem value was gained by researches on use of technology of low baking with the subsequent lyophilizing (see) for receiving the pharmaceuticals (see) containing thermolabile substances. Optimal conditions of extraction are found (see) medicinal substances. Researches on tabletting of multi-component medicinal mixtures, development of high-molecular film-forming structures for production of tablets with the prolonged action are conducted. The possibility of creation of essentially new dosage forms — liposomes (see), the immobilized enzymes, firm dispersions, adjustable therapeutic systems is revealed.
As carriers of medicinal substances synthetic polymeric materials are offered.
Idiosyncrasy F. on sovr. a stage development of the recent scientific trends, napr, bio-pharmacy is (see), edges are studied by influence of physical condition of substance, its chemical structure, properties of aids, a type of a dosage form and character tekhnol. processes on biol. activity of medicine.
In the USSR the pharmacy plays a large role in development of scientific bases of practical activities of pharmaceutical service. Thanks to it philosophy of management of pharmaceutical economy of the country are defined, the nomenclature of pharmaceutical institutions in relation to various types of settlements is developed and to lay down. - the prof. of institutions, established standards of development of drugstores (see). On a scientific basis also development of network of pharmaceutical institutions, the organizations of their work, strengthening of material and technical resources and definition of economic indicators of their activity is predicted. ACS is developed and implemented by pharmaceutical economy («the Subsystem of GAPU»). Scientific bases of definition of needs of health care for drugs of separate groups of pharmaceuticals are created. Long-term forecasts of need of health care for pharmaceuticals are developed.
In the USSR the state system on control of quality of pharmaceuticals is created (see Control of pharmaceuticals). In the control system of pharmaceuticals in the USSR the special place occupies Pharmacopoeian committee of Management on implementation of new pharmaceuticals and USSR M3 medical equipment, to-ry considers and approves the specifications and technical documentation on pharmaceuticals (pharmacopoeian and temporary pharmacopoeian articles), makes the State Pharmacopoeia and additions to it (see the Pharmacopoeia). For carrying out this work as a part of pharmacopoeian committee there are relevant commissions (chemical, pharmaceutical, headlights-makognostichesky, fa rkhmako logical, on antibiotics, endocrine drugs, blood preparations and blood substitutes, and also the commission on vaccines, serums and anatoxins).
In sovr. conditions in the USSR much attention is paid to further improvement of the organization of scientific research on F. Planning and coordination of scientific research in our country are carried out by the problem commission «Pharmacy» of Scientific council but pharmacology and pharmacy at presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Head pi-volume on problems F. the in-t of pharmacy of M3 of the USSR is All-Union research (see Research institutes, the table).
For forecasting of perspectives of pharmaceutical researches in the USSR the concept of its development in our country till 2005 is developed. In this concept
the main directions of basic and applied researches are defined and division F is reflected. on four private problems (studying of officinal flora of the USSR, pharmaceutical technology and biopharmacy, pharmaceutical chemistry, scientific bases of the organization and economy of pharmacy). These materials are included in the uniform Comprehensive program of scientific and technical progress for the period till 2005 according to the section «Public health care» in a part «Medical science».
A big scientific and organizational role in development F. in our country plays All-Union scientific
druggists (VNOF) created in 1950. In the USSR materials on F. hl are published. obr. in magazines «Pharmation», «Himiko-pharmatsevtichesky zhurnal», «Voprosy meditsinskoy himii», «Pharmakologiya i toksikologiya».
See also Pharmacology.
Bibliography: And l yu sh and N M. T. Rol
of science foundation of druggists in development of pharmaceutical science and practice of the USSR, Pharmacy, No. 6, page 28, 1982; e-, P. I. Aptechnaya's rasim sluzhba4. the countries to the 60 anniversary of formation of the USSR, in the same place, page 3; V. I. Organization's Shouts and economy of pharmacy, M., 1983, bibliogr.; The collection of regulations on pharmaceutical service, under the editorship of M. A. Klyuev, M., 1979; Tentsova A. I. Development of pharmaceutical science in the Soviet Union, Pharmacy, No. 6, page 9, 1982; Tentsova A. I. and With to at l to the island and R. S. Bases of the scientific organization of work in drugstores, M., 1980; Tentso
va A. I., Panchenko E. I. and Semenova T. D. Pharmacy in the USSR, M., 1973, bibliogr.
A. I. Tentsova, M. A. Klyuev.