PHARMACOGNOSY (Greek pharma-kon medicine - f-gnosis knowledge, science) — science about medicinal plants, medicinal raw materials of a plant origin, products of its primary processing and nek-ry types of medicinal raw materials of animal origin.
In tasks F. studying of chemical structure of medicinal plants (see), a biogenesis of biologically active agents and their localization in ontogenesis of a plant, and also impact assessment of environmental factors and features of cultivation of medicinal plants on accumulation of these substances in different parts of a plant enters; research of new medicinal plants and raw materials; carrying out resource and raw researches for the purpose of identification of industrial stocks of medicinal plants, definitions of biological and operational stocks, regulations of ways of collecting, drying and storage of medicinal raw materials (see); rationing and standardization of medicinal raw materials; development and improvement of methods of definition of its authenticity and quality, drawing up specifications and technical documentation.
New medicinal plants and raw materials are allowed to use in medical practice only after the positive decision of Pharmacological committee M3 of the USSR (see. Pharmacological committee) and their inclusion in «The state Register of the pharmaceuticals allowed for use in medical practice and for industrial production» (see the Register state).
T. divide into the general and special. In the general F. consider the tasks stated above, value F. for formation of the range of pharmaceuticals and scientific justification of development of a source of raw materials for pharmaceutical industry (see Chemical pharmaceutical industry). As a result of a purposeful research of flora ways and methods of identification of new medicinal plants are developed. Questions of protection and rational use of wild-growing medicinal resources, and also cultivation and cultivation of medicinal plants are considered. Stages of procuring process and methods of evaluation test of medicinal vegetable raw materials are stated.
Special F. it is devoted to studying of separate medicinal plants and the raw materials received from them.
One of recent trends F., to-rye appeared in recent years, the geochemical ecology of medicinal plants and culture of their fabrics are. The geochemical ecology considers influence of chemical structure of the soil on accumulation in plants of biologically active agents and microelements (see) passing into extraction medicines (ecopaths, tinctures) and forms (infusions, broths). Studying of culture of fabrics of medicinal plants allows in industrial conditions to receive the valuable raw materials containing necessary biologically active agents of medicinal plants, raw material resources to-rykh are limited (a root of a ginseng, etc.).
Plants use as pharmaceuticals from an extreme antiquity. The term «pharmacognosy» was used for the first time by Abu Raykhan Bie-runi (973 — 1048) in the work «Pharmacognosy».
In Russia in 16 and 17 centuries so-called herbalists and doctor books began to be created (see), to-rye laid the foundation for domestic F. Poyavivshiyesya's development at the end of 18 and the beginning of 19 centuries of the composition of H. M. A mbodika - Maxi - movicha «Medical veshchestvoslovy» and A. P. Nelyubina of «Pharmakografiya» can be considered as prototypes of future managements on F.
In the middle of 19 century in connection with expansion of researches on studying of chemical structure of medicinal plants, emergence of new methods of definition of authenticity of samples of vegetable raw materials, identification of impurity and counterfeits, setting standards of high quality of raw materials premises, on the basis to-rykh Yu. K appeared. Trapp allocated F. in independent discipline also made the first manuals of the general course of pharmacy on it (1858; 1868 — 1869). Big contribution to development F. V. A. Tikhomirov who executed original researches on studying of the nek-ry plants growing in our country and tropics brought. V. A. Tikhomirov created a number of the fundamental managements on F. (1885, 1888—1890, 1900). Visible
domestic pharmakognosta were also A. F. Gammerman, D. L. Davydov, G. of JI. Dragendorff, N. F. Mentin, A. D. Chirikov, etc.
Sovr. domestic F. became a basis of practical development of huge vegetable richness of our country and their use for needs of health care. For the solution of this problem various forms of scientific searches and researches are used: studying of experience of traditional medicine; a mass chemical research of plants directly in the field for the purpose of identification in them certain groups pharmacological active agents; use of the existing phylogenetic bonds between plants. The studying of experience of traditional medicine which is carried out on the basis of the critical analysis of collected information allows to make primary selection of vegetable objects for a further phytochemical and pharmacological research. At a field method generally qualitative phytochemical analysis allowing to select the most perspective plants from lump checked is carried out (this method is called also method of a sieve).
Phylogenetic searches often successfully take place also outside a sort — in families and larger systematic divisions.
Research on F. to the USSR it is led generally at departments of a pharmacognosy of pharmaceutical and medical in-t, in All-Union research in-those chemistry and technology of pharmaceuticals (VNIIHTLS), All-Union in-those medicinal plants (VILR), Ying-those pharmacochemistry of Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, in nek-ry botanical in-ta of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and AN of federal republics. Research activity on F. it is supervised by the all-union problem commission «Pharmacy» which is a part of scientific council «Pharmacology and pharmacy» of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.
As subject matter F. it is taught at the relevant departments of pharmaceutical in-t or pharmaceutical faculties of medical institutes, and also in pharmaceutical schools.
Attraction of wide layers of druggists to scientific work on F. it is carried out through All-Union, republican and regional (regional) scientific about-va druggists, in structure to-rykh there are sections on F.
Till 1917 questions F. were only incidentally discussed at the All-Russian medical congresses. The first All-Union meeting on medicinal plants took place in 1925 in Moscow. In the subsequent such meetings were held in 1961 (Baku) and in 1971 (Tbilisi). Regularly each 4 — 5 years on the basis of VILR pass interdepartmental meetings on medicinal vegetable raw materials.
Works on F. are published in the Farkhmation magazine, «Pharmaceutical magazine», «The chemical and pharmaceutical magazine», and also in works and collections of educational and research in-t, works of all-Union and republican pharmaceutical congresses, conferences and symposiums.
See also Dosage forms', Standardization, pharmaceuticals; Pharmacy.
Bibliography: And A. D. grooves, Moore
of a vyev D. A. and Toltsman T. I.
About implementation in practice of health care of results of the scientific research conducted in pharmaceutical higher education institutions of the Russian Federation and about improvement of planning of science, Pharmacy, t. 28, No. 5, page 1, 1979; Gammerman A. F.
40 years of a pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical business, t. 7, No. 2, page 3, 1958; it e, Course
of a pharmacognosy, L., 1967; Gammerman A. T. and Muravyeva D. A.
Studying of officinal flora of the USSR, Pharmacy, t. 16, No. 5, page 38, 1967;
Muravyeva D. A. Value of works of Academy of Sciences in the field of medicinal plants for development of a domestic pharmacognosy, in the same place, t. 24, No. 1, page 32, 1975; it e, the Pharmacognosy
(With fundamentals of biochemistry of medicinal substances), M., 1981; it, Tropical and subtropical medicinal plants, M., 1983; Tentsova A. I. Development of pharmaceutical science in the Soviet Union, Pharmacy, t. 31, No. 6, page 9, 1982; Tentsova A. I. and Hay in the Item JI. The main stages of development of pharmaceutical science in 60 years, in the same place, t. 26, No. 5, page 7, 1977; Utkin L. A., Gammerman A. F. and Nevsky V. A. The bibliography on medicinal plants, M. — L., 1957; In about - k about w s to i B. Zarys farmakognozji, Warszawa, 1970; Steinegger E. u. Hansel R. Lehrbuch der Pharmakog-nosie, Auf phytochemischer Grundlage, V. and. a., 1972; Tyler V. E., Brady L. R. a. Robbers J. E. Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, 1976.
D. A. Muravyeva.