PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION — system of preparation and improvement of pharmaceutical shots of the highest (pharmacists) and average qualification.
Preparation of pharmaceutical shots in Russia up to 19 century was carried out at the medical schools created at hospitals. The first highest pharmaceutical educational institution in Russia can be considered the department of training of pharmacists created in 1808 at the St. Petersburg medikokhirurgichesky academy. Since the beginning of 19 century teaching pharmaceutical sciences was carried out also in Moscow, Kharkiv, Kazan and Yuryevsky (Tartu) high fur boots. In 1838 ranks of the pharmaceutical assistant, the pharmacist and the druggist were established, the main requirements to training of these specialists are defined. In 1845 in Russia instead of degree of the druggist degree of the master of pharmacy as the highest academic degree was entered.
After Great October socialist revolution preparation of pharmaceutical shots in the beginning (till 1927) it was carried out on specialized courses and at pharmaceutical schools. Then pharmaceutical schools were transformed to pharmaceutical technical schools. Specialists of the top skills prepared on chemical and pharmaceutical f-those the 2nd MSU, Leningrad and Perm chemical and pharmaceutical f-takh and at pharmaceutical institutes of Odessa and Tbilisi.
Preparation of averages and the highest pharmaceutical shots was unified in our country by the resolution SNK USSR of September 8, 1936. Since 1937 academic degrees of the doctor and candidate of pharmaceutical sciences are established.
In sovr. conditions preparation and improvement of pharmaceutical shots with the higher education — pharmacists (see) — is carried out to the USSR on pharmaceutical f-takh of medical in-t and in pharmaceutical in-ta (see. Medical institutes). The number such f-tov and in-t in our country by 1984 reached 32. The complex of chemical, medicobiological and special pharmaceutical disciplines is the cornerstone of the higher pharmaceutical education: pharmaceutical chemistry (see), pharmacognosies (see), technologies of dosage forms (pharmaceutical and factory), the organizations and economies of pharmacy. The separate courses allowing to carry out specialization of graduates in standardization and quality control of pharmaceuticals, technologies of dosage forms, to management of pharmaceutical service, the toxicological analysis are provided in the curriculum on 9 and 10 semester. The term of training at full-time department — 5 years, on evening — 5,5 years, on correspondence — 6 years.
Training of specialists with secondary pharmaceutical education is carried out in pharmaceutical schools and on pharmaceutical departments of medical schools. In 1984 there were 95 pharmaceutical schools and departments. The term of training of druggists (see the Druggist) for persons with 8 years' education — 3 years, for persons with 10 years' education — 2 years.
Professional development of pharmacists is reached by systematic improvement of knowledge on f-takh professional development, created at many pharmaceutical in-ta and f-takh, and also in-ta of improvement of doctors. Improvement of knowledge of druggists with secondary education is carried out on special courses at pharmaceutical schools.
Bibliography: V. I. Organi's shouts
zation and economy of pharmacy, M., 1983, bibliogr.; At z d e N and to about in A. N. Preparation of pharmaceutical shots in the USSR, Pharmacy, t. 31, No. 6, page 19, 1982.
A. P. Arzamastsev.