(Greek pharmakeia medicine; chemistry) — the science studying ways of receiving medicinal substances, their physical, chemical properties and storage conditions, and also methods of a research of qualitative and quantitative composition of medicines.
Development F. x. it is closely connected with medicobiological (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology) and chemical (the general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry) sciences. T. x. at the same time is basic for the main profile pharmaceutical sciences: technologies of dosage forms, toxicological chemistry and a pharmacognosy (see).
T. x. arose in a subsoil of a so-called yatrokhimiya (see). The end 18 — the beginning of 19 centuries were marked by opening of new chemical connections and elements, napr, organic to - t, glycerin, chlorine [Sheele (C.W. Scliee-1e)], chrome, beryllium [L. N. Vauquelin]. iodine [Courtois (V. Courtois)]. On development of pharmaceutical chemistry in 18 century the great influence was exerted by M. V. Lomonosov's works about a role of chemistry in medicine and works of his successors — T. E. Levina, V. M. Severgin, etc. on creation of ways of receiving and development physical. - chemical methods of a research of medicinal substances.
Development of pharmaceutical chemistry in 19 century is connected with studying of natural sources of medicinal substances and allocation from medicinal plants (see) alkaloids> napr, morphine, quinine, strychnine and other substances. Creation of the guides to a chemical research of pharmaceuticals belongs to this period (A. A. Iovsky, A. IT. Nelyubiya) and the first edition (pharmacopeias (see) in Russian (1866j. Further progress F. x. are caused by development of materialistic views in the field of the theory of a structure and synthesis of organic compounds (A. M. Butlerov,
A. A. Voskresensky, H. N. Zinin, D. I. Mendeleyev).
The term «pharmaceutical chemistry» appeared in the middle of 19 century. For rubezhokhm F. x. it was allocated in the independent direction on the verge of 19 and 20 centuries. In our country F. x. became independent discipline after Great October socialist revolution when the beginnings soz yes vats I chemical and to-fa rm and tsevt iche-
Skye the industry (see) and research base in the form of specialized research in-t and departments F. x. in pharmaceutical in-ta. In the same time the main directions F were created. x., led to creation of new pharmaceuticals, napr, streptocides (O. Yu. Magidson, I. Ya. of the II wasps that Sunday a cue, M. V. Rubtsov), alkaloids (A. P. Orekhov, G. P. Menshikov, V. M. Rodionov,
N. A. Preobrazhensky, A. S. Sady-kov, S.Yu. Yunusov), steroid hormones (I. V. Torgov, H. N. Suvorov), antibiotics (3. V. Ermolyeva, to G.F. Gauza, M. G. Brazhnikova, M. M. Shemyakin, A.S. Khokhlov).
Scientific achievements in the area F. x. in our country allowed to provide satisfaction of needs of health care for the main pharmaceuticals.
Main directions F. x. are: purposeful search of new medicinal substances, development and improvement of methods of evaluation test of pharmaceuticals for the purpose of ensuring their efficiency, safety and a keeping.
T. x. considers the following circle of problems: establishment of communication and patterns between a structure of medicinal substances and their physical. - chemical and pharmakol. properties; search of new ways of receiving physiologically active agents by the directed change of their structure (thin organic synthesis, chemical and biol. modification) or by receiving substances of earlier unknown structure; development of the principles and requirements defining quality of medicinal substances, the choice of methods of evaluation test of pharmaceuticals for implementation of their control according to requirements of the State pharmacopeia of the USSR and other specifications and technical documentation.
Problems F. x. in the USSR Min-va systems of the medical industry are engaged research in-you (see Research institutes. table), and also Ying t of pharmacology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, number of in-t of republican academies of Sciences (naira., Ying t of organic synthesis of AN of the Latvian
SSR, Ying t of thin organic chemistry of AN of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, etc.). Researches on problems F. x. are carried out by also relevant departments of medical and pharmaceutical in-t, All-Union scientific research institute of pharmacy M3 of the USSR.
As subject matter F. x. it is taught at the relevant departments of pharmaceutical in-t or pharmaceutical f-tov medical institutes, and also in pharmaceutical schools.
Attraction of farkhmatsevt to scientific work on F. x. it is carried out within All-Union, republican and regional (regional) scientific about-in druggists. Periodicals in the area F. x. the Pharmation magazine and «Chemical and Pharmaceutical Magazine» are.
Bibliography: Melentyeva G. A. Pharmaceutical chemistry, t. 1 — 2, M., 1976; Natradze A. G. Sketch of development of chemical pharmaceutical industry of the USSR, M., 1977; E b e 1 S. Synthe-tische Arzneimittel, Weinheim — N. Y., 197-9; Pfeifer S. Biotransfor.mat.ion von Arzneimitteln, Bd 1—4, B.,
1975 — 1981; Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, ed. by Ch. O. Wison a. o., Toronto, 1977.
A. P. Arzamastsev.