PFLYUGER Eduard (Pflüger Eduard, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1829 — 1910) — the German physiologist.
Got an education in the Magdebourg and Berlin high fur boots. I. Müller and E. Du Bois-Reymond's pupil. Since 1856 worked at department of physiology Berlin un-that. Since 1859 professor of physiology Bonn un-that where Ying t organized physiology, the Crimea directed until the end of life.
Early researches E. Pflyugera are devoted to questions of reflex activity of the spinal cord isolated from overlying departments of c. N of page, and to studying of the braking influence of sympathetic fibers of a celiac nerve on the movements of intestines opened for them in 1857. The greatest fame was gained by its researches about action of direct electric current on a nerve and a muscle (1859). To them it was established that at closing of the circuit of a direct current on a negative pole (cathode) there is an excitement, and at disconnection it is noted on a positive pole (anode); during passing of current through fabric on the cathode the state raised, and on the anode — the lowered excitability is observed. On the basis of these researches he formulated the law of electrotone (see. Electrotonic phenomena ) and the polar law (see). Doctrine E. Pflyugera about electrotone, developed afterwards by B. F. Verigo (see), made a basis idea of processes of excitement and was of great importance for development of an electrotherapy and electrodiagnosis of diseases of a nervous system.
Researches E. Pflyugera in the field of physiology of a metabolism were devoted to questions of a gas and nitrogen metabolism and food in general, to problems of blood circulation, digestion, breath and power of an organism, including questions of a source of muscular energy, processes of synthesis, incretion, etc.
By means of an advanced technique of definition of products of a nitrogen metabolism and carbohydrates he showed insolvency of provisions of the theory of K. Foyt about energy sources for muscular work and proved that as the main construction material in an organism serves protein of food and protein of fabrics. Contrary to popular belief E. Pflyuger established that processes of a metabolism are made in all fabrics, and not just in blood.
Great attention E. Pflyuger gave to microscopic examinations; in 1883 it opened influence of Gravity on the sequence of phases of crushing of egg and development of a germ. Its experiences in this area served as the beginning of development of experimental embryology. E. Pflyuger possesses also cyanic theory of an origin of life, original theories of a dream, life expectancy, etc.
In 1868 E. Pflyuger founded the Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie magazine which played a big role in development of physiology (since 1910 «Pflüger’s Archiv...»).
E. Pflyuger was elected the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1894).
Works: Die sensorischen Functionen des Rückenmarks der Wirbeltiere, B., 1853; De nervorum splanchnicormn functione, diss., B., 1855; Über das Hemmungs-Nervensystem für die peristaltischen Bewegungen der Gedärme, B., 1857; Untersuchungen über die Physiologie des Electrotonus, B., 1859; Über die Kunst der Verlängerung des menschlichen Lebens, Bonn, 1890 (Russian lane, Odessa, 1890).
Bibliography: Pavlov I. P. Sketch of scientific activity Ad. Pflyugera, in book: Pavlov I. P. Weed. SOBR. soch., t. 6, page 401, M. — L., 1952; Cyon E. Eduard Pflüger, Pflüg. Arch. ges. Phy-siol., Bd 132, S. 1, 1910; Nussbaum M., E. F. W. Pflüger als Naturforscher, Bonn, 1909.
BB. A. Shilinis.