PETTENKOFER Max (Pettenkofer Max Josef, 1818 — 1901) — the German doctor, one of founders of experimental hygiene, the member of the Bavarian academy of Sciences (1847) and its president (since 1890).
Ended medical f-t Munich un-that in 1843. It was improved in the field of physiology and medical chemistry at Yu. Libikh. Since 1847 professor of department of medical chemistry, and since 1865' of the prof. of the Germany's first department of hygiene in Munich un-those; the founder and the head (since 1879). Ying-that hygiene in Munich.
M. Pettenkofer entered an experimental method of studying of environmental factors into medicine; developed methods of hygienic assessment of air (definition of carbon dioxide gas in premises), soils, clothes, etc., hygienic requirements to construction materials of residential buildings, hygienic norms of food (together with K. Foyt). Paid special attention to hygiene of the soil (degree of its humidity, to the level of ground waters, weeding of the cities and removal of sewage).
A number of researches of M. Pettenkofer is devoted to epidemiology of cholera. He proved value of drainage of the soil and removal of sewage for the prevention of intestinal diseases, including cholera. Drills staged on the basis of it a gigabyte. actions for improvement of the inhabited places led to considerable decrease in incidence of intestinal infections in Munich and other cities of Germany. At the same time M. Pettenkofer underestimated value of researches of R. Koch and his employees who proved a crucial role of a microbic factor in epidemiology of cholera. To prove an inaccuracy of views of R. Koch, M. Pettenkofer in 1884 made an experiment on himself, having swallowed culture of causative agents of cholera, and only by a lucky chance did not get sick.
M. Pettenkofer was one of founders of Zeitschrift fur Biologie (1865) and Archiv fur Hygiene (1883) magazines.
Works: Boden und Grundwasser in ihreii Beziehungen zu Cholera und Typhus, Miinchen, 1869; t)ber den Werth der Gesujid-heit fur eine Stadt, Braunschweig, 1873 (Russian lane, SPb., 1874); VortrSge iiber Canalisation und Abfuhr, Miinchen, 1876, 1881 (Russian lane, M., 1877); Der Boden und sein Zusammenhang mit der Gesundheit des Menschen, B., 1882; Handbuch der Hygiene und der Gewerbekrankheiten, T. 1 — 3, Lpz., 1882 — 1894 (sovm, with Ziemssen H. V.); Cholera, the lane with it., M., 1885; t)ber Cholera mit Beriicksichtigung der jungsten Chole-raepidemie in Hamburg, Miinchen, &192 (Russian lane, SPb., 1892).
Bibliography: Bazanov V. A., F. F. Erisman (1842—1915), D., 1966, bibliogr.; Shtreys A. N. Max Pettenkofer, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 4, page 48, 1969; Geschichte der Medizin, Einfuhrung in ihre Grundziige, hrsg. v. A. Mette u. I. Winter, s. 444 u. a., B., 1968; N e u s t a-11 e of O. Max Pettenkofer, Wien, 1925; W o 11 e of F. Bie Grundlagen der beiden Hauptrichtungen in der epidemiologischen Forschung, Miinchen, 1926.