From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PESTICIDES — the collective name of the means used for pest control and diseases of plants with weed vegetation, wreckers of grain and grain products, wood, wool, skin, products from cotton, with ectoparasites of domestic animals, with carriers of diseases of the person and animals. Carry to P. also growth regulators of plants, defoliants and desiccants. Along with the term «pesticides» for designation of such substances the term «agricultural toxic chemicals» is widely used.

Depending on P.'s appointment divide into the following basic groups: acaricides (see) — the means applied to extermination of ticks; algicides — means for destruction of seaweed and other weed vegetation in reservoirs; anti-helminths — for fight against helminths at animals; antirezistenta — the special additives reducing separate substances resistance of insects; antiseptic agents — for protection of non-metallic materials from destruction by microorganisms; feeding repellents — for scaring away of insects from plants which they eat; arboricides — for destruction of undesirable wood and shrubby vegetation; attractants (see) — for attraction of insects; aphicides — for fight against a plant louse; bactericides — for fight against bacteria and bacterial diseases of plants; gametocytes — for sterilization of weeds; herbicides (see) — for destruction of weed vegetation; desiccants (see) — for dehumidification of plants; defoliants (see) — for removal of leaves; zoocides — for fight against rodents; insecticides (see) — for extermination of insects; Larvicides (see) — for destruction of maggots; molluscicides — for fight against harmful mollusks; nematocides — for fight against roundworms; growth regulators — for acceleration of growth and development of plants; repellents (see) — for scaring away of insects; synergists — the additives causing strengthening of action of insecticides; fungicides (see) — for fight against causative agents of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of plants. There are P. of complex action; e.g., protravitel of seeds contain fungicide, an insecticide, a bactericide.

Most widely in agriculture acaricides, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides are used.

According to a gigabyte. the classification developed under the direction of L. I. A bear (1974), degree of danger of P. is determined by the following signs:

I. On toxicity at introduction to a stomach an experimental animal: strong toxic agents — DL 50 to 50 mg/kg; highly toxic — DL 50 50 — 200 mg/kg; srednetoksichny — DL 50 200 — 1000 mg/kg; low-toxic — DL 50 more than 1000 mg/kg.

II. On toxicity at receipt through skin: with rezkovyrazhenny toxicity — DL5o less than 300 mg/kg, skin and oral coefficient less than 1 (skin and oral coefficient — the relation of DL 50 , established during the putting substance on skin to DL 50 at introduction to a stomach); with the expressed toxicity — DL 50 300 — 1000 mg/kg, skin and oral coefficient 1 — 3; with slight toxicity — DL 50 more than 1000 mg/kg, skin and oral coefficient more than 3.

III. On degree of a volatility: very dangerous — the sating concentration is more or is equal to toxic; dangerous — the sating concentration is more threshold; low-dangerous — the sating concentration has no threshold effect.

IV. On cumulation (coefficient of cumulation — the relation of the total dose of substance which caused death of 50% of experimental animals at repeated introduction to the dose causing death of 50% of animals at single influence): possessing supercumulation — coefficient of cumulation less than 1; the expressed cumulation — coefficient of cumulation 1 — 3; moderate cumulation — coefficient of cumulation 3 — 5; slight cumulation — coefficient of cumulation more than 5.

V. On firmness in the soil: very resistant (time of decomposition for non-toxic components of St. 2 years); resistant (time of decomposition for non-toxic components 0,5 — 2 years); moderately resistant (time of decomposition for non-toxic components 1 — 6 months); low-resistant (time of decomposition for non-toxic components — within 1 month).

VI. On a blastomogennost (L. M. Shabad's classification, 1966): obviously cancerogenic (developing of cancer at people, strong carcinogens in animal experiments is known); cancerogenic (Carcinogenicity is proved in animal experiments, but is not proved in public); slabokantserogenny (weak carcinogens in animal experiments); suspicious on a blastomogennost.

VII. On teratogenecity: explicit teratogens (the uglinesses reproduced experimentally on animals are observed also at people); suspicious on teratogenecity (existence of teratogenic effects in experiments on animals).

VIII. On embriotoxity: having selective embriotoxity (it is shown in doses, not toxic for a maternal organism); moderate embriotoxity (it proyav-vlyatsya along with other toxic effects).

IX. On allergenic properties: strong allergens (cause an allergic state in most of people even at influence in small doses); weak allergens (cause an allergic state in separate individuals).

P.'s toxicity depends on their chemical structure, physical. - chemical properties (a volatility and firmness), and also from concentration, duration of influence and ways of intake of poison to an organism. Owing to firmness and cumulative properties many P. can collect in various objects of the environment and come to a human body on biol, a chain (air — the soil — the person, air — the soil — water — the person, the soil — water — seaweed — fish — the person, the soil — plants — food stuffs — the person). Can come to a human body of P. through respiratory tracts, went. - kish. path, skin and mucous membranes. Are brought out of an organism with urine, a stake.

Owing to P.'s selectivity their toxicity for the person, shall be many times lower than useful animals, insects, plants, than for the live organisms which are liable to destruction. As a quantitative index of degree of selective toxicity of P. serves the coefficient of selectivity — the relation of DL50 for hematothermal to DL50 for insects or other types which are liable to destruction. Selective toxicity of P. is caused by distinctions in permeability of substances through outside covers, internal barriers, and also distinctions in processes of metabolism, the mechanism of action. As a rule, sharp selectivity P. received from natural substances or their synthetic analogs — pyrethrins have and pyrethroids (see), analogs of juvenile hormones, pheromones, etc.

In the USSR to P.'s use the following a gigabyte is shown. requirements: 1) in agriculture to apply, as a rule, drugs, low-toxic for hematothermal animals and the person (an exception zoocides and protravitel of seeds since for the specified purposes low-toxic connections are not found yet make); 2) not to use the firm P. which are not decaying in nature on non-toxic components within 2 and more years; 3) not to apply P. with sharply expressed cumulative properties; 4) not to apply P. if at a preliminary research their Carcinogenicity, a mutagenicity, embriotoxity and allergenicity is established.

Items belong to various classes of organic and inorganic compounds. The quantity them constantly increases in connection with emergence of resistance to them.

Depending on belonging to a class of chemical connections P. subdivide on organochlorine, organophosphorous, derivative carbamic, tio-and dithiocarbamic to - t, the chlorphenoacids derivative of simmtriazin, derivative urea, dipyridsilt connections, galoidanilida aliphatic to - t, the dinitrophenolic compounds derivative of coumarin, alkaloids, organo-mercuric compounds, cupriferous drugs, myshyaksoderzhashchy drugs, etc. Short gigabyte. data on the separate drugs which are the most widely applied in agriculture are provided in the table (see below).

Organochlorine pesticides are most widely applied to pest control of grain, commercial crops, fruit-trees, vineyards, vegetable, field cultures, afforestations. Most of them badly rastvorima in water, well rastvorima in organic solvents, including fats. Their feature, as a rule, is firmness in the environment; e.g., DDT (see. Santobane ), GHTsG (see. Hexachlorocyclohexane ), aldrin, heptachlor were found in the soil in 4 — 12 years after their use. They a long time are late in top coats of the soil, slowly migrate in depth, collect in products of plant and animal origin. Their concentration in the subsequent links biol, appreciate accrue.

Organochlorine Items. generally have average toxicity, except for the diene derivatives (aldrin, dildrin) relating to substances, strong and highly hazardous on the volatility, can come to an organism through went. - kish. a path, respiratory tracts, and diene — through the unimpaired skin (see. Chlorinated hydrocarbons ).

Items of this group are typical representatives of substances of polytropic action with preferential defeat of c. N of page and parenchymatous bodies (liver, kidneys, heart, lungs). The expressed ability to cumulation is characteristic of them — collect generally in fatty tissue; repeated receipt in an organism even in small doses can lead to development hron, poisonings. Are allocated from an organism with excrements, urine.

The mechanism of toxic action of organochlorine P. on an organism remains obscure. A number of authors believe that at poisoning they break tissue respiration.

At acute poisoning headaches, dizziness, extremity pains, in the pit of the stomach, nausea, vomiting are observed, ataxy (see); in hard cases — temperature increase, tachycardia, short wind, spasms, coma. Hron, poisoning is shown by slackness, increased fatigue, sleeplessness, irritability, pains in heart and epigastriums; development is characteristic hepatitis (see), gastritis (see), bronchitis (see), polyneuritis (see). Development of allergic reactions at repeated contact with drugs is possible. Laboratory indicators at diagnosis of poisoning: the sharp hyperglycemia which is replaced by a hypoglycemia; in urine of squirrels, erythrocytes, sometimes bilious pigments, the increased content of urobilin; in blood increase in quantity milk and pyroracemic to - the t, reduction in the amount of thrombocytes (a positive bandage sign), a leukocytosis, a deviation to the left (band forms to 15%) accelerated by ROE; oppression of activity of glucocorticoids (eozinopenichesky reaction after introduction of AKTG) and mineralokortikoid; low content is 17 ketosteroids in daily urine and insufficient increase its after introduction of AKTG. Besides, at poisoning of scales and - GHTsG isomer in blood serum the ratio of activity of glyutamino-shchavelevo-acetum and glyutamino-pyroracemic aminotransferases decreases; perchlorobutadiene — the maintenance of glucuronides in urine considerably increases, activity of cytochrome oxydase is oppressed; heptachlor — notes a methemoglobinemia, decrease in reserve alkalinity, increase in titratable acidity of urine: a dichloroethane — the content of creatinine, urea sharply increases; polychlorpinene — in blood the methemoglobin is found, the ratio of excretion of catecholamines is broken (the increased concentration of adrenaline lowered — noradrenaline), the monocytosis, an eosinopenia is observed.

Cure of antidotal therapy for P.'s poisoning of this group is absent. It is necessary to stop further influence of P. first of all: at hit on skin — to remove drug with a tampon and to wash away alcohol-alkaline solution or warm water with soap; at irritation of eyes — to wash out their 2% solution of hydrosodium carbonate; at hit in a stomach — to wash out it water with addition of adsorbents (magnesium oxide, active coal, white clay, a tannin). At threat of an apnoea it is carried out artificial respiration (see), intravenously enter lobeline. It is necessary to avoid use of adrenaline in connection with a sensitization of a cardiac muscle. At spasms — grinding of extremities, hot-water bottles to legs, a heat bath. In case of a fluid lungs (see) are reasonable bloodletting (see) with the subsequent introduction of 40% of solution of glucose, an oxygenotherapy (see. Oxygen therapy ). Also bioantioxidants (Galaskorbin, alpha tocopherol), cysteine are recommended.

Organophosphorous pesticides — low-resistant in the environment, in plants, the soil and water, in the majority decaying within 1 month. P.'s remains in food stuffs collapse at heat treatment. Their feature is ability to get easily through skin, without causing local action. These connections possess a low and average volatility. Despite it, inhalation poisonings are possible.

Oppression of a number of the enzymes relating to esterases, in particular is the cornerstone of the mechanism of toxic action of most of organophosphorous P. cholinesterases (see), players important fiziol, a role (see. Organophosphorous connections ).

In a wedge, a picture of poisoning with various organophosphorous P. of distinction can be only in degree of manifestation of symptoms of excitement central and peripheral sincaline re active systems, in dominance muskarino-or nicotinosimilar symptoms (see. Muskarin , Nikotin ), in the speed of development of toxic effect. The symptomatology of poisoning depends on ways of arrival of P. to an organism: at inhalation — miosis (see), difficulty of breath, then defeat central and autonomic nervous system; at skin — there can be muscular fibrillations in the place of intake of poison, intoxication is stretched in time; at receipt through went. - kish. a path — nausea, vomiting, enterospasms, diarrhea, tenesmus. In a wedge, allocate to a picture of serious acute poisoning three stages: initial symptoms, convulsive and paralytic. In the first stage the concern, fear, dizziness, hypersalivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, diarrhea, dacryagogue, a vision disorder are noted. Then paresthesias develop, confusion of consciousness, an ataxy, a tremor of hands, the heads, disturbance of the speech are observed. The paralytic stage is characterized by attacks of kloniko-tonic spasms (see), replaced by coma; Cheyn's breath — Stokes (see. Cheyna — Stokes breath ). The blood pressure in the beginning increased then sharply falls, the fluid lungs develops. Death comes from an apnoea.

Hron, poisonings are shown by dizziness, headaches, a memory impairment, bystry fatigue, a sleep disorder, a disorientation in space, vazovegetativny disturbances. After the postponed intoxications some organophosphorous P. (triortokrezilfosfaty, hlorofosy, etc.) observe the disorders of functions of a peripheral nervous system which are expressed in neuritis (see), paresis and paralyzes of extremities (see. Paralyses, paresis ). Laboratory indicators at diagnosis of poisoning: a specific indicator — oppression of activity of cholinesterase in blood; change of a range of isoenzymes of cholinesterase, and also peroxidase, catalase, majority of lipases, adenozintri-phosphatases; increase in activity of ceruloplasmin, change of a proteinaceous range of blood; in blood increase in globulin, reduction of albumine, a neutrophylic leukocytosis, an eosinopenia, a lymphopenia, a hyperglycemia, increase in concentration of copper (the last indicator is recommended for forecasting of neurotoxic effect); in a blood plasma perhaps increased contents milk to - you, phosphates and potassium; decrease of the activity of oxidation-reduction enzymes of a catalase and peroxidase; increase in residual nitrogen, acidosis. Besides, at poisoning with a metaphos, methylmercaptophos, metilnitrofosy: in urine paranitrophenol is found; rueleny: in urine Au-methyl-m-methylamidophosphorus and 4-третбутил-2-хлорфенил-О-метил-фосфорная to - you; hlorofosy: in urine during the carrying out a one-stage prothrombin time test sharp reduction of contents benzaminoacetic to - you.

At P.'s hit on skin it is necessary to process immediately its 5 — 10% solution of ammonia or 2 — 5% solution of chloroamine; at hit in eyes — carefully and plentifully to wash out them water; at receipt through a mouth — to wash out a stomach water with addition of adsorbents (active coal). At threat of an apnoea carry out an artificial respiration. At P.'s hit in an organism in any way, even in the absence of symptoms of poisoning, subcutaneously or intramusculary enter 1 ml of 0,1% of solution of atropine, at moderately severe poisoning — 2 — 3 ml, at a serious poisoning — intravenously slowly enter 4 — 6 ml. At an easy form of intoxication also other cholinolytic drugs (Platyphyllinum, Spasmolytinum, aprophene) can be used.

For treatment of poisonings with drugs of this group reaktivator of cholinesterase, e.g. 2PAM (2-piridinaldoksime-tilliodid), by TMB-4 (dipiroksy), etc. are widely used.

Pesticides — derivatives of carbamic acid, arilovy and alkilovy ethers of arylcarbamic acids. They have the expressed antikholinesterazny activity. The mechanism of toxic action of arilovy connections is connected with oppression of activity of cholinesterase, and alkilovy ethers — with formation of a methemoglobin.

Wedge, picture acute and hron, poisonings with these drugs: concern, a headache, hypersalivation (see. Salivation ), fibrillar muscular twitchings, asthma; in hard cases kloniko-tonic spasms, paralyzes develop, defecation and an urination become frequent.

Laboratory indicators at diagnosis of poisoning: oppression of activity of cholinesterase, disturbance of oxidizing processes, exchange nucleinic to - t; in blood a methemoglobin, a considerable leukopenia, a granulocytopenia, toxic granularity of neutrophils; in blood and urine chlorides.

First aid at poisoning consists P. from an organism at a distance. In the presence of signs of excitement of cholinereactive systems apply cholinolytic substances. At poisoning of easy degree enter intramusculary 0,1% solution of sulfate of atropine (1 — 2 ml); at intoxication of average degree this antidote is entered intramusculary or intravenously (2 — 4 ml), introduction is repeated (on 2 ml) every 10 min. before weakening of siptom of intoxication. Use re activators of cholinesterase is inexpedient. At motive excitement appoint hexenal or medinal.

Pesticides — derivatives of thiocarbamic acid. The mechanism of toxic effect of thiocarbamates on an organism of hematothermal animals is not found out yet. In a toksikodinamika the defining role is played by oppression of oxidizing processes, disturbance of functions of a nervous system, damage of a liver and hemadens.

A wedge, a picture of acute poisoning of P. of this row — the excitement which is replaced by oppression, hypersalivation, an asthma; in hard cases the tremor, an ataxy, tonic or kloniko-tonic spasms, paresis are noted.

Laboratory indicators at diagnosis of poisoning: oppression of oxidizing enzymes, disturbance of exchange nucleinic to - t; N of blood — change of concentration of sugar and pyroracemic to - you, hemoglobin contents, leukocytes; reduction of a daily urine, density of urine, albuminuria, increase in chlorides, residual nitrogen.

Symptomatic treatment.

Pesticides — derivatives of dithiocarbamic acid. In nature these P. are exposed to destruction as a result of which a number of very toxic volatile compounds is formed (CS 2 , H 2 S, etc.), and also rather resistant, to-rye are found in food stuffs and water. A number of these connections has more high toxicity in comparison with mother compounds. Items of this class are allergens (see). Properties to cause and other effects which are shown at receipt in P.'s organism in the quantities considerably exceeding really meeting are inherent in them. Laboratory indicators at diagnosis of poisoning: blocking of SH-group of blood proteins; increase in contents xanthurenic to - you in urine (38,5 — 59,6 mg a day at norm of 20 — 25 mg), definition of pesticides and their metabolites (etilentiomochevin) in blood, urine and Calais; carbon sulfur in expired air. In blood the increased sugar content, milk to - you. At poisoning polimartsiny: reduced hemoglobin content, erythrocytes, leukocytes, reticulocytosis; decrease in functional activity of a thyroid gland; increase in excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline; in blood pesticides and metabolites (dimethyl - amine salt of dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, tetramethyl thiourea); zineb: urine of dark brown color, in urine and blood is defined an etilentiomochevina, in expired air — carbon sulfur, the leukocytosis is noted; ziram: a superactivity of a lactate dehydrogenase, in urine and blood metabolites (dimeti-laminny salt of dithiocarbamic acid, tetramethyl thiourea) are defined; editony: decrease of the activity of ceruloplasmin and quantity of leukocytes and eosinophils.

Symptomatic treatment.

Pesticides — derivatives of chlorophenoxyacetic acid can come to a human body through skin, a respiratory organs and went. - kish. path. At poisoning with these connections of the complaint to the general weakness, bystry fatigue, drowsiness, a headache, irritation of upper respiratory tracts, loss of appetite, on sweet smack in a mouth, the strengthened hypersalivation, the increased perspiration, a sleep disorder, on pain in heart of the stupid aching character, pain in right hypochondrium. Disturbance of olfactory and flavoring sensitivity is noted. Fatal poisonings at hit in 2M-4X are described (22 g), 2,4-D (15 g of substance and 30 mg of solution), being followed by heavy convulsive attacks and proceeding as a diabetes mellitus. Laboratory indicators at poisoning: detection of pesticides in blood and urine; in blood serum — increase in activity asnartat — and alaninaminotranspherases, a lactate dehydrogenase, zymohexase, a kreatinofosfokinaza. At poisoning: 2,4-D-aminnoy I will merge urine — dark brown color, in it oxyhemoglobin and a methemoglobin; 2M-4X — urine is painted in green color, in blood serum bilirubin with a direct diazo test.

At P.'s hit on skin it is necessary to wash away carefully them water or to remove a piece of fabric; at hit in eyes — it is plentiful to wash out eyes water, 2% solution of hydrosodium carbonate or boric to - you; at hit inside — to wash out a stomach water and to allow the victim to drink V2 of a glass of water about 2 — 3 table. l. active coal, then salt laxative. Further carry out symptomatic therapy, an oxygenotherapy.

Halogenated anilides of carboxylic turned sour t — average and a little toxic connections. A number of these connections causes formation of a methemoglobin, change morfol, composition of blood. Poisonings are not described.

The pesticides containing alkaloids — strong toxic agents.

For a wedge, pictures of acute poisoning are characteristic dizziness, a headache, nausea, vomiting, disorder of activity of cardiovascular system. Hypersalivation, narrowing of pupils, the increased sweating, fall of temperature is noted. In hard cases the loss of consciousness, development of spasms, short wind is observed, the nonsense is possible.

Hron, poisoning is followed by an atrophy of mucous membranes, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, frequent headaches, a loss of appetite, emaciation; at women frustration of a menstrual cycle develops.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: detection of drugs in urine; in blood — increase in amount of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, increase in maintenance of SH-group; change of activity of a catalase and peroxidase.

At sharp disturbances of breath and a stop it will be out an artificial respiration, appoint atropine. At P.'s hit in a stomach it is washed out by 0,1 — 0,2% solution of potassium permanganate; appoint salt laxatives. Symptomatic treatment.

Pesticides — nitro - and chlorphenolic compounds. The main ways of arrival of P. of this group to an organism — dermal absorption or through a respiratory organs. Cases of poisoning by them with a lethal outcome owing to P.'s arrival through skin are described during the work with solutions (see. Phenols ).

At acute poisoning temperature increases to 40 ° above, the headache is observed, the general weakness, dizziness, thirst, erubescence, language is laid over. Further an asthma, increase of pulse and breath, a ring in ears, a vision disorder, emergence of sensation of fear, motive excitement, nonsense, spasms, then a coma are noted. Death comes from a fluid lungs and a brain.

At hron, poisoning many of above-mentioned symptoms can be observed, and also sharp falling of the weight (weight) of a body, decrease in hearing, a parasthesia, development of a cataract, on skin makulopapulezny and urtikarny rash, a heavy erythrosis; yellow coloring of hair, skin, mucous membranes is noted.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: detection of pesticides and products of their transformation (nitro - and amin derivatives) in blood and urine; in blood Pyroracemic, milk to - you and acetone; reduction of a hemoglobin content, erythrocytes, leukocytes, the accelerated ROE; increase in activity of a catalase, decrease of the activity of peroxidase of blood, hyperglycemia.

At emergence of the first symptoms of poisoning of the victim it is necessary to bring out of the contaminated zone, to cause vomiting and to wash out a stomach. Treatment pathogenetic and symptomatic (heart, somnolent and sedative drugs). Barbiturates, castor oil, greasy food, alcohol are contraindicated.

Pesticides — hydrocarbons, aldehydes and their derivatives. Most widely apply methyl bromide (see) in quality fumigant (see) for disinfecting of elevators, mills, holds of the ships, refrigerators. It is recommended also in medical practice for processing of polymers, tools, optical devices and other equipment. Poisoning is possible at P.'s arrival through skin. Its toxic action is connected with education in an organism of methanol, products of his metabolism and bromides. For a wedge, pictures of poisoning existence of the eclipse period is characteristic. Weakness, a headache, nausea, vomiting are observed, there are a shaky gait, trembling of extremities, a vision disorder, a dermahemia, hypotonia, tendon jerks raise. In several hours or 1 — 2 days muscular twitchings, epileptiform attacks, trembling of language and extremities, a scanning speech can appear; doubling in eyes, expansion of pupils and lack of a photoharmose, a lack of coordination of movements is noted. In hard cases develop a fluid lungs (see), damage of kidneys with an anury and signs uraemias (see), coma. At hron, intoxications in several weeks after the beginning of the works connected using P. arise the headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, weakness in extremities, feeling of numbness in fingers raised salivary and sweating, pains in heart, a vision disorder and acoustical hallucinations (see).

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: in blood — methanol, ant to - that, formaldehyde, falloff of maintenance of SH-rpynn, proteins and carboxyl groups, reduction of content of albumine and increase — globulins.

At the first symptoms of poisoning it is necessary to remove immediately the victim from a dangerous zone, to lay on a back, heat to cover and put hot-water bottles to legs. At dizziness or an unconscious state allow to inhale spirit of ammonia. The symptomatic treatment, if necessary is carried out anticonvulsant therapy: medical and prophylactic cysteine is specific. With to lay down. drug is used by the purpose in a dose of 0,5 g 2 — 3 times a day, with the preventive purpose — inside in a dose of 0,5 g in 30 min. prior to work and repeatedly after escaping of a dangerous zone (see Hydrocarbons).

Organo-mercuric pesticides are used for preseeding disinfecting of seeds, it is frequent in mix with organochlorine P. Naiboley it is dangerous ethylmeasures-kurkhlorid. In the form of vapors and dust it can be found in air of a working zone at various stages: at storage, transportation, a protravlivaniye of seeds, their storage and crops. P.'s most of this group — high and strong toxic substances (an exception — merkurbenzol also died-kurgeksan, belonging to srednetoksichny), possess the expressed cumulation and firmness in the environment; interacting about SH groups of proteins, break activity of many fermental systems. They cause various primary (hl. obr. in the central nervous system) and the mediated changes, from an organism are allocated slowly with urine and a stake, are found in milk feeding. Content of mercury in urine is not in direct dependence on weight of intoxication.

Acute poisoning is shown by metal smack in a mouth, headaches, strong thirst, burning in a mouth, swelling and bleeding of gums, nausea, hypersalivation, vomiting, a loss of consciousness, abdominal pains, a diarrhea with slime (it is frequent with blood). In the subsequent paralyzes of extremities can develop, visual acuity and hearing decreases, the involuntary urination and defecation are observed, the blindness is possible. The accelerated ROE, a neutrophylic leukocytosis are noted protein in urine. The symptom complex of poisoning reminds toxic encephalopathy.

At hron, poisoning the victim complains of emaciation, weakness, bystry fatigue, drowsiness, of sleeplessness later, easing of memory, thirst, metal smack in a mouth, hypersalivation. Join stomatitis (see), ulitis (see). Change of mentality is typical.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: mercury in urine in concentration more than 0,04 mg/l; blockade of thiol groups of fabric proteins with formation of metalloidproteid; disturbance of electrolytic balance; in blood serum — increase in activity of aminotransferases, an alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (especially its hepatic fraction); at hron, a mercurialism — increase glycemic coefficient.

At the first symptoms of poisoning wash out a stomach, appoint salt laxatives, enter solution of Unithiolum according to the scheme. Intravenous administration of vitamins, bromides is at the same time shown (see. Mercury ).

Cupriferous pesticides are poison for the person. Are registered heavy, sometimes fatal cases of poisoning after intake of salts of copper through went. - kish. a path in a dose of 1 — 2 g. The dose of 10 g is absolutely deadly to the person.

At P.'s hit in went. - kish. the path appears unpleasant metal and astringent taste in a mouth, plentiful hypersalivation, nausea, vomiting are observed. Emetic masses is painted in green or blue-green color. Colicy pains in a stomach, weakness, dizziness, the complicated breath are noted. At P.'s arrival through respiratory tracts the symptom complex of «mednoprotravny» fever develops. Local irritative action on skin is followed by small red rash with an itch. Face skin, hair and a conjunctiva of eyes at workers, it is long adjoining to P. of this class, can be painted in greenish-yellow or greenish-black color. On gingivas the dark red border is sometimes noted.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: change of a proteinaceous range of blood serum, blocking of SH blood groups; bilirubin in a blood plasma and urine; at poisoning trikhlorfenolyaty copper: in blood — a leukocytosis to 25 000 — 35 000, a lymphocytosis, the eosinophilia raised by ROE; large amount of hemoglobin; toxic granularity of neutrophils, anisocytosis, poikilocytosis.

First aid and treatment: to the victim two-three times allow to drink 6 — 10 glasses of solution of magnesium oxide (100 g on 1 l of water) and cause vomiting, salt laxative is appointed, at abdominal pains — anesthetics; the symptomatic treatment is carried out (see. Copper ).

Myshyaksoderzhashchy pesticides have high toxicity. In agriculture, except calcium arsenate, as P. are not applied. The mechanism of toxic effect of calcium arsenate consists in blocking of sulphhydryl groups of enzymes and disturbance of exchange processes.

Distinguish gastrointestinal, paralytic and ingalyatsionnuk> forms of acute poisoning. At went. - kish. to a form in 0,5 — 2 hours there is metal smack in a mouth, a feeling of a scratching, burning in a throat, vomiting (with impurity of bile), severe pains in a stomach, and a cherea several hours a diarrhea with tenesmus, an oliguria (to an anury), hoarseness of a voice, a spasm, cyanosis, a collapse; in 8 — 15 days development of a polyneuritis is possible. The paralytic form arising at receipt of a large amount of drug is characterized by weakness, twitching of muscles, a loss of consciousness, falling of cordial activity; death comes in the first days. At inhalation poisoning the irritation of upper respiratory tracts and eyes, nasal bleedings, nausea, weakness, dizziness are observed. At hron, poisoning the symptomatology varies depending on ways of hit of poison to an organism.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: release of arsenic with urine within 15 — 830 mkg! l a day; in urine uropepsinogen.

At acute poisoning of the victim delete from the contaminated zone, wash out a stomach, enter an antidote (Antidotum arsenici or Antidotum metallorum). The symptomatic treatment is carried out (see. Arsenic ).

Cyan - and rodansoderzhashchy connections. The operating toxicant P. of this group is allocated cyanhydric acid (see).

At action of low concentrations distinguish 4 stages of poisoning: in an initial stage the victim catches a smell of bitter almonds, it has a feeling of a scratching in a throat, bitter smack in a mouth, the irritation of upper respiratory tracts, weakness, dizziness is noted; in a stage of an asthma there are pain and feeling of constraint in a breast, an asthma, the darkened consciousness; in a stage of spasms pristupoobrazny spasms, the complicated breath, arrhythmia are observed; in a stage of paralysis — a loss of consciousness, shallow breathing, a collapse. Death comes from paralysis of a respiratory center. Forms hron, poisonings: nervous, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal.

Laboratory indicators at poisoning: detection a sort of anid in urine, the raised oxygen content in a venous blood; the arteriovenous difference on oxygen, the high content of hemoglobin, a hyperglobulia is reduced or is absent; at it is long contacting — decrease in level of sugar, increase milk to - you, glutathione and a catalase.

At acute poisoning it is necessary to remove urgently the victim from the contaminated zone, to take off the contaminated clothes, to allow to inhale amyle nitrite; intravenously enter hromosmon (50 — 100 ml of 1% of solution methylene blue for 25% solution of glucose) or 2% solution of sodium nitrite (10 — 15 ml), and also 30 — 50 ml of 30% of solution of sodium thiosulphate. Provide to the patient rest, heat, inhalation of oxygen. Symptomatic treatment.

Prevention of poisonings

Measures of prevention of the prof. of poisonings of P. consist first of all in the greatest possible restriction at all stages of work of contact with P. and are regulated by «By health regulations on storage, transportation and use of pesticides in agriculture». Measures are taken for an exception of a possibility of accidental poisonings among the population living near places of use of P., and also broad dispersion of P. in the environment. Warehouses where P. are stored, it is necessary to have not closer 200 m from premises, large warehouses of page - x. technicians — are not closer than 500 m. On these warehouses strangers shall not be allowed. Workrooms and platforms of warehouses are equipped according to the existing instructions.

P.'s transportation is allowed only by special transport which is periodically neutralized on specially equipped platforms.

Container in which transport and store P., shall be operational and provide reliable packaging of P., have the corresponding clear marking. Use of the released container for other purposes is not allowed. Tara disposable is destroyed, and returnable neutralized on specially equipped platforms.

Only specially trained personnel which underwent medical examination can work with P. Persons under 18 are not allowed to work with P., women are more senior 50 and men are more senior than 55 years, and also pregnant women and nursing mothers. It is recommended even to involve the permanent staff which had special training during the seasonal works with P. Each 12 months such personnel undergo medical inspection, and during the work with some P. even to a bowl. E.g., during the work with organophosphorous P., with derivatives carbamic to - you it is necessary to investigate weekly activity of cholinesterase in blood; at decrease it for 25% in comparison with the initial level (define at everyone before work) the worker is transferred to the works which are not connected with the Item.

The Soviet legislation established the maximum duration of the working day at contact with P. — 6 hours, and at contact with the most toxic (organo-mercuric, nek-ry organophosphorous P.) — 4 hours; the remained 2 working hours can be used at the works which are not connected with the Item.

Works with P. are as much as possible mechanized (the protravlivaniye of seeds will be out only in special cars, P.'s drawing on page - x. cultures — by means of units on mechanical draft etc.). In connection with considerable useless dispersion of P. in the environment and pollution its use of aircraft at P.'s drawing on page - x. cultures it is limited to the sites remote from settlements not less than on 1000 m.

It is recommended to use P. preferential in solutions and suspensions, but not powdery. The way of entering of P. into the soil in the granulated look is safest.

Consumption rate of P., terms and frequency rate of processing of page by them - x. cultures are annually approved together with lists P., allowed for use. At the same time terms of prohibition of access to the processed territory of people and the cattle are established. At P.'s processing certain sites it is necessary to notify timely on it local population, and to designate sites the warning signs.

For the prevention of the prof. of poisonings of P. strict observance of rules of personal hygiene and use of individual protection equipment have great value. All workers contacting to P. are free of charge provided with overalls, special footwear and individual protection equipment. During the work with the raising dust P. use overalls with a helmet from special fabric (type moleskin), mittens with a film covering, tarpaulin boot covers, the protivopy-left points, antidust respirators like «Petal», «Aster», etc. (see. Respirators ). During the work with liquid and gaseous P. of workers supply with overalls from a tarpaulin canvas or fabric with a film covering, rubber gloves and boots, hermetic points, respirators (RPG-67, RU-62 type) with antigas filters (during the work with organo-mercuric P. use the boss G, during the work with most of others — the boss A). Overalls and individual protection equipment are systematically subjected to neutralization. Individual washing of overalls and its carrying out out of limits of a working zone are not allowed. Places for disguise, storage of overalls and sanitary cleaning shall be provided to workers.

For the purpose of decrease in danger of poisoning of P. new substances with more selective effect are found (safe for people and useful animals); use of the special additives increasing dispersion and P.'s adherence (strengthening of effect is perspective at the same dosages), small-volume and ultra-small-volume spraying, use of biological methods of controlling page - x. wreckers.

Pesticides and foodstuff

At P.'s use in agriculture there is a danger of pollution of foodstuff by them directly or through other objects of the environment (water, the soil, a container etc.). Besides, pollution of foodstuff P., used in life is possible.

On to food chains (see) Items can pass from one biol, an object into another therefore the range of the foodstuff contaminated by P. considerably extends. E.g., during the processing of page - x. P.'s cultures, having got to fodder grain, fodder vegetables, other forages for the cattle and a bird, then with meat, milk, pass with eggs into a human body. They can be both on a surface, and in foodstuff. Pollution by firm P. is especially dangerous, many of which are capable to collect in foodstuff at retreatments of crops. Sometimes P. change organoleptic properties of products, and many of them — chemical structure and nutrition value of products. It is known, e.g., that under the influence of a metaphos, the fozalona, on-likarbatsina, a maneb and some other P. considerably decreases quantity ascorbic to - you in vegetables, fruit, berries; content of starch in potatoes at impact on it decreases drugs 2,4-D, in 2,4-DM; under the influence of a metaphos, hexachlorane the carbohydrate and proteinaceous structure of cereals changes. The nature of changes of mineralnosolevy structure of products and duration of the period of the subsequent its recovery depend on a type of the applied P., their concentration, the moment of processing of page - x. cultures and other factors.

The greatest danger of pollution of foodstuff P. consists in their toxic influence on the person. As a rule, P.'s concentration in foodstuff is small therefore acute poisonings are observed seldom, however the remote effects (blastomogenic, mutagen, embrio-tropny action), and also emergence of allergic reactions are possible. Many countries, including the USSR, and also by WHO developed admissible residual quantities in foodstuff for each P. (tab).

For the purpose of the maximum decrease in maintenance of P. in foodstuff optimum terms of processing of page are developed - x. cultures at which respect by the time of the use of products in them there is P.'s decomposition; it is forbidden to use the most firm P., the new types of P. capable to render necessary effect are developed, and then to break up quickly before harmless connections. For prevention of harmful effects of P. on a human body terms of the use of the products contaminated by P. (at storage considerable part P. decays), and also their processing (washing, cleaning, culinary processing) matter.

In the USSR dignity. - epid, the service carries out systematic control of the content of residual number of P. in foodstuff.

Military-medical value of pesticides

according to military specialists of the USA and other countries of NATO, P. can be used in the military purposes. Their mass use in the form of phytotoxic pollutants — the substances intended for destruction of vegetation — was carried out by army of the USA in Vietnam. According to the published data, during the military operations an amer. troops applied more than 50 thousand tons of P. on the area of several tens of thousands of square kilometers for the purpose of destruction food and a source of raw materials and a demaskirovka of objects of the opponent. During the use in the military purposes P. are, as a rule, sprayed from airplanes and helicopters in the form of emulsions and powders; defeat of staff of army and the civilian population is possible at inhalation of aerosols or the use of the infected products and waters. P. brought in the soil can infect subsoil waters for a long time.

P. used by army the USA caused irritation of mucous membranes of eyes, upper respiratory tracts and integuments. At hron, influence, especially in high doses, organs of sight, breath, a liver, kidneys were surprised; also severe defeats of c were observed. N of page. The myshyaksoderzhashchy substances and connections including nitrophenols and chlorphenols, and also impurity of tetrachlordioxine are especially toxic for the person. Most often were used by army of the USA in Vietnam 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and «the blue agent».

At defeat 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T 4 periods — the period of contact (irritation of mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tracts), the eclipse period (10 — 30 min.), the period of an adynamia were observed (1 — 36 hour) and coma period; main symptoms: weakness, an adynamia, nausea, vomiting, a diarrhea, fall of temperature of a body, anemia, sugar and protein in urine, can develop paresis and paralyzes, at severe forms — a coma.

The «Blue agent» containing cacodylic to - that, is one of the most toxic P. V doses of 10 — 50 mg it causes damages, and in doses of 0,06 — 0,2 g — a serious poisoning from the death. Possesses cumulative action. Characteristic symptoms: spasms, loss of consciousness, paralyzes; irritation with the subsequent formation of the centers of a necrosis on mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tracts; defeat of parenchymatous bodies. Possesses the expressed cancerogenic and teratogenic action.

After P.'s defeat the asthenic state develops, function of sight (bystry fatigue is broken during the reading) and there are adverse genetic effects (inborn uglinesses).

Massive use of P. by army of the USA in Vietnam showed that use in the military purposes can lead them to defeat of staff, civilian population, defeat of flora, fauna, disturbance of ecological bonds in the nature and long environmental pollution which effects will affect still for a long time.

Pesticides in the medicolegal relation

P.'s Poisonings usually are a consequence of their reception by a mistake or as a result of suicide attempts, and also arise at disturbance a dignity. - a gigabyte. rules of storage, transportation and use of the Item. Recognition of poisonings of P. is based on studying of circumstances of incident, assessment a wedge, pictures, data court. - medical researches of a corpse and results a lab. researches.

From evidences the professions of the victim given about character are the most important whether it had access to P. on service or in life etc. At inspection of the scene it is necessary to examine a surrounding situation, to pay attention to the remains of substances on a corpse, various bottles and bottles with their contents, packagings, objects of household chemicals etc.

For establishment of poisoning with specific P. carry out the analysis a wedge, symptoms of poisoning.

The court is important for the proof of poisoning of P. - a medical research of a corpse and especially court. - a chemical blood analysis, urine, internals and fabrics as P.'s most does not cause in an organism any specific morfol, changes. Sometimes morfol, changes at P.'s poisoning happen specific. So, at P.'s poisonings, containing arsenic, morfol, changes are characterized by a picture of a necrotic gastroenteritis: the bulked-up mucous membrane is covered with «a scaly plaque», thickened, with hemorrhages, sometimes with an ulceration; contents of guts watery; acute fatty dystrophy of a liver, kidneys, a myocardium, stagnation in capillaries of a mesentery are defined; the serous cover sticky, does not shine, with hemorrhages; in cardial cavities and large vessels thick blood, parcels of blood, under an endocardium of hemorrhage; the xeroderma is noted.

In other cases morfol, changes, though are not specific, but nevertheless are quite characteristic. So, at poisonings with organophosphorous P. the bystry and sharply expressed cadaveric spasm, a miosis, cyanosis of the person, foamy slime around a mouth and a nose, a plethora and a fluid lungs with sites of an atelectasis, with hemorrhages in a parenchyma and under a pleura are noted; microscopically — signs of a spasm of small bronchial tubes and pneumonia, preferential aspiration) character; in cardial cavities liquid blood, hemorrhages under Epi - and an endocardium, dystrophy of parenchymatous bodies; sometimes changes of a mucous membrane of intestines have necrobiotic character, on the course of intestinal loops the sites of spastic reduction giving to intestines a look are visible it is accurate; small - and krupnokapelny obesity of hepatic cells; hypostasis of a brain. Expressiveness of changes in internals can vary from insignificant circulatory disturbances and reversible dystrophic changes to focal necroses that depends, on the one hand, on P.'s type, its dose, concentration, duration of action, with another — on reactivity of an organism, existence of background diseases, alcohol intoxication etc.

At a research of a corpse the expert directs pieces of internals and liquid to court. - chemical, gistol. and other researches. For court. - chemical researches should be taken in the pure, well closed glass jars separately a stomach with contents, a part of small and large intestines with contents, to 300 g of a liver, one kidney, to 300 g of lungs, to 300 g of a brain, heart, a spleen, to 30 ml of blood, urine.

Methods gas-liquid and thin layer were widely adopted chromatography (see), colorimetric and spectral methods with use photometry (see) and spektrofotometriya (see), botanical, pharmacological, biochemical, methods.

Many P., napr, organophosphorous, in an organism are exposed to quite bystry hydrolysis, oxidation and are brought out of it. In this regard negative take court. - a chemical research on P. and their metabolites does not exclude poisoning yet. Besides, P.'s most, organic by the nature, in process of rotting of a corpse are also exposed to decomposition. At poisonings organo-mercuric and arsenic - organic P. poison the long time remains in a corpse and the lab can be revealed. by methods even in many years after death.

See also articles devoted to separate drugs, e.g. Dichloroethane , Krysid , Hlorofos , and also Carbamic connections , Nitro compounds , Poisonings , Cyanic connections .


Bibliography: Atabav Sh. T., Boyko I. B. and Pulatov B. A. Influence of residual amounts of pesticides on nutrition value of vegetables and fruits, Tashkent, 1976; Kagan Yu. S. General toxicology of pesticides, Kiev, 1981; Kaloya-n about in a-S an imeonova F. Pesticides, Toxic action and prevention, the lane with bolg., M., 1980; Kramarenko V. F. and T at r to e in and the p B. M. Analysis of toxic chemicals, M., 1978; Medical and sanitary aspects of use of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapon, the Report of group of consultants of WHO, the lane with English, M., 1972; Millers of H. N, Volkova A. I. and Korotkova O. A. Pesticides and environment, M., 1977; With m at with and Ya. S N. Forensic medical examination of poisonings with antikholinesterazny substances, M., 1968; The Reference book on pesticides (hygiene of use and toxicology), under the editorship of L. I. Bear, Kiev, 1974; Air pollution from pesticides and agricultural processes, ed. by R. E. Lee, Cleveland, 1976; Hayes W. J. Toxicology of pesticides, Baltimore, 1975; Safe use of pesticides, Techn. rep. ser. No. 634, Geneva, WHO, 1979.

Yu. I. Kundiyev; A. A. Velichko (pitas.), H. A. Loshadkin (soldier.), Ya. S. Smusin (court. - medical); originator of table. L. I. Medved.