PERU, the Republic of Peru — the state in the western part of South America. The area is 1285 thousand km 2 . Population of 18 million people (1980). The capital is Lima (4,3 million zhit., 1978).
Administrative division — 24 departments, to-rye are divided into provinces, and provinces — into districts.
Ofits. languages — Spanish and Quechua.
After the coup in October, 1968 in power there are military authorities headed by the president appointed by it who carries out legislative and executive power together with council of ministers.
On an environment in the country are allocated: coastal strip (Costa) in the West; mountain, preferential steppe area in the center (Sierra) and area of wet and forest east foothills and plains (Selva). Climate: from desert, almost without any precipitations on 3., to equatorial on
V. P. — the agrarian country. 44,5% of the population are engaged in agriculture. The agrarian reform undertaken in the country undermined system of latifundiya; pages are created - x. cooperatives and agro-industrial complexes, the earth are received by landless and land-poor peasants. The main export cultures — a cotton, a sugarcane, coffee; in the country grow up also wheat, rice, corn, barley, potatoes. Vegetable growing, livestock production, fishery are developed. However own production satisfies needs of the country for food for only 60%. Food is imported from the USA, Japan, the countries of Latin America. The USSR renders economic and technical assistance of P. in design and exploration work and construction of a large hydropower and irrigational complex of Olmos and in creation of fishing plant.
In the country mining and fishing industry is developed. On extraction of bismuth P. wins first place in the capitalist world, on extraction of silver — the second. There are also oil, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten and arsenic. The country occupies one of the leading places in the world on production of fish oil. Important positions in national economy are taken by the foreign capital. Industrial production is presented generally by the industries of mining and processing industry which are carrying out extraction of iron ore and ores of non-ferrous metals, oil refining, lead smelting.
On vost. to slopes of the Andes the wild-growing and cultivated cocaine bush (Erythroxylon coca) grows. Annually in P. it is prepared apprx. 35 000 t of leaves cooks; from them 10 000 t use for production of pharmaceuticals, preparation of the refreshing drinks, the rest — goes illegal ways to underground f-ki, laboratories and serves as raw materials for receiving cocaine (see), used as drug (see. Cocainism ).
Apprx. 0,5 population of the country Peruvians, other hl make. obr. Indians. The largest nationalities from them — the Quechua and Aimar occupy a mountain zone. In 1976 children up to 15 years made 44,2% of the population. Average population density in 1980 made 14 people on 1 km 2 .
The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975, on incomplete ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO (for 1000 the population): birth rate 41,0, general mortality 13,6, natural increase 27,4. Child mortality 59,5 for 1000 live-born (1977). Average life expectancy in 1975 made for men 53,9 years and for women 57,5 years.
In structure of incidence the leading place is taken by infectious and parasitic diseases. In 1977 in the country it was registered apprx. 9,3 thousand cases of a typhoid and paratyphus (6,1 thousand in 1975), apprx. 6 thousand — other salmonelloses (4 thousand in 1975), St. 4,9 thousand cases of bacillar dysentery (3,8 thousand in 1975), 1,3 thousand — an amebiasis (St. 1,5 thousand in 1975), apprx. 33,2 thousand tuberculosis (14,8 thousand in 1975), 137 cases of a malignant anthrax (57 in 1975), 491 — a brucellosis (424 in 1975), 83 — leprosies (34 in 1975), 169 — a spotted fever (122 in 1975), 183 — acute poliomyelitis (94 in 1975), St. 8,8 thousand — measles (5,1 thousand in 1975), 145 — viral encephalitis, 5,5 thousand — inf. hepatitis (4,2 thousand in 1975), St. 32 thousand — malaria (14,6 thousand in 1975), apprx. 1,5 thousand — a leushmaniosis, St. 4 thousand syphilis, 3,9 thousand — a gonococcal infection, 139 — an echinococcosis, St. 1,9 thousand — an ankilostomidoz, apprx. 29 thousand — flu (St. 23,5 thousand in 1975), and also isolated cases of plague, yellow fever of the jungle, a tripanosomatoza, trachomas, a sapropyra.
In structure of causes of death, according to 1973 (later data were not published), the leading place is taken (on 100 000 zhit.) diseases of a respiratory organs (204,5), inf. and parasitic diseases (174,0), enterita and other diseases went. - kish. path (81,6), disease of the blood circulatory system (62,1), accidents, poisonings, injuries (44,6), malignant new growths (37,0), etc.
Performs management of health care mines - in health care which part are: council of national health care and social security, the main inspectorate and the highest management under which authority the school of public health care and service of planning, engineering standards in the field of health care, the organization and methods of work are. In provinces and districts there are districts and zones of health care, and also sites of hospital service.
In the organization of health care a part is played by the public and private organizations, napr, national in-you health care, in-t of protection of motherhood and the childhood, funds of national health care and social security, service of social insurance, health service of army and police and medical service of other min.-century.
Coordination of activities for health care between the central bodies and peripheral institutions, and also between various departments is carried out by service of planning of min.-va health care and the interministerial commissions.
In 1977 in the country there were 437 medical institutions on 29 934 beds (19,9 beds on 10 000 zhit.). There were 290 general BCs (24 405 beds), 107 medical centers (1000 beds), 17 maternity hospitals (661 beds), 2 nurseries-tsy (688 beds), 1 onkol,-tsa (139 beds), 1 nevrol,-tsa (283 beds), 1 otorhinolaryngological-tsa (6 beds), 3 orthopedic-tsy (237 beds), 11 psychiatric BCs (2434 beds), 1 leper colony (14 beds), and 3 specialized-tsy (67 beds), etc. From total number of medical institutions 264 (60,4%) were under authority of min.-va health care, 68 (15%) — public organizations and 105 (24,6%) — private.
In 1975 extra hospital help was given in 1648 centers and points of health care and 810 other institutions (the centers for protection of motherhood and the childhood, points of rehabilitation, clinics psychiatric, dental surgery and other types of medical aid). In 1977 different types of medical service captured 66,8% of the population.
In 1977 water handling provided 72% of city and 10% of country people; in 1976 50% of city and 12% of villagers used the sewerage.
In 1977 in the country 10 514 doctors worked (6,4 doctors on 10 000 zhit.). Distribution of doctors over the country uneven, napr, in Lima 15,8 on 10 000 zhit., in the southern part of Altiplano 0,7 on 10 000 zhit. In mines-va institutions of health care 30,9% of doctors of the country worked. In 1977 in the country there was a St. 9,4 thousand midwifes and nurses and apprx. 14,4 thousand assistants to the medical sister.
Training of doctors in 1979 was carried out at 7 medical schools (term of training of 6 — 8 years), nursing staff — at 21 schools (the term of training 3 — 4 years). In 1978 620 doctors were trained.
In P. there are mountain balneological resorts with carbonic arsenic iron waters (Kachikadan, Tablaiaka, Lares, Ayaviri), sulfuric (Zero, to Loklapam-pa), hloridno - arsenic-ferruterous (Monterrey, 2703 m above sea-level); seaside balneological resorts with hloridno-carbonic waters (It is barefoot, Chilka around Lima, Uakachina), mountain resorts (Tingo, Jesus, Sabandiya, Chankos), resorts with hloridno-carbonic waters (Banyos-de-Putina and Banyos-del-Inka), etc.
Medical scientific research are conducted in the National medical academy founded in 1884 (Lima), the Peruvian surgical academy and in-ta of biology, pathology and tropical medicine at un-those (Lima) in-those mountain researches at un-those by Caetano Erediya, etc.
In 1970 during a big earthquake of the USSR gave to P.'s people help in mitigation of consequences of an earthquake. At the same time as a result of plane crash during the following in P. 22 Soviet citizens, including health workers died. In memory about died on the spot placements of the Soviet hospital around an earthquake the monument is built.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 143, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Pan American Health Organization health conditions in the Americas, 1973 — 1976, Washington, 1978.
B. V. Galakhov.