PERSONAL HYGIENE (grech, hygieinos healthy, useful to health) — set of the hygienic rules of conduct of the person promoting preservation and strengthening of his health and increase in term of active life.
L.g. is an integral part of hygiene and the gigabyte includes rules. maintenance of a body, oral cavity, generative organs, and also uses of clothes, footwear, dwelling.
Proceeding from the fact that the person always is in collective, and life and health are inseparable from work and communication of people on production and in other conditions of human existence, many hygienists and practical doctors expand the concept «personal hygiene». As elements L. questions are considered work (see) and rest (see), mode food (see), dream (see). Significance is attached to a psychohygiene (see) in aspect of possible training of the person in strong-willed methods of management of own mental state, emotions and mood for the purpose of prevention of psychological overloads that is prevention of nervous and cardiovascular diseases.
Adaptation of the person to the environment, increase in resistance of an organism to various adverse factors can be reached in the way hardenings (see), correct physical. education (see. Physical culture ), regular training charging (see) taking into account age and others a gigabyte. measures.
All specified questions are closely connected among themselves and make a uniform complex. However in the present article features of hygiene of the woman and the man, and also a gigabyte are conditionally allocated, most in detail stated. requirements to the maintenance of a body.
L. it is inseparable from hygiene public. Any collective — production, school, military, family — is interested in observance by each member of group of the main a gigabyte. governed. In a dignity. - epid, practice it is a lot of examples when non-compliance with rules L. in institutions and at catering establishments and water supply was the cause of outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Crucial importance in acquisition of skills of L. belongs to sanitary education (see), implementation to-rogo is assigned to all health workers and a sanitary asset.
Observance gigabyte. rules of conduct is one of the conditions defining culture of the person; at their non-performance there can be insufficiently effective governmental activities on to occupational health (see), to hygiene of children and teenagers (see), to utility hygiene (see), on prevention of diseases, etc. G. V. Hlopin (1921) emphasized that the main objective of hygiene in general is in making «development of the person by the most perfect, decline of life by the least bystry, life of the strongest and the death of the most remote».
Rules L. are the most ancient measures for preservation of health. Description gigabyte. rules of conduct, uses of water, clothes, the dwelling, etc. are found in documents, song collections, poems of great ancient poets, in religious books, treatises of scientific physicians of antiquity — Hippocrates, K. Galen and many others. This period in development of L. was based on observations and the empirical conclusions that walks and games in the open air, bathing and solar bathtubs, purity of a body and the dwelling strengthen health, interfere with emergence and spread of diseases (first of all infectious), put heart, develop force and endurance.
With development of medical knowledge, especially in connection with achievements of microbiology and epidemiology, identification of ways of transfer of causative agents of infectious diseases, barrier functions of skin etc., measures of L. received scientific justification. L. began to be considered as a scientific method of prevention of various diseases.
Measures of L. are carried out taking into account age, and also anatomo-fiziol. features of a female and male body. Ground rules gigabyte. care of the boy and the girl at infantile age the general (see. Baby , Newborn ). Skills of L. children need to impart from early age; in it the big role belongs to the local pediatricians and medical sisters instructing parents, to doctors of a children's day nursery and gardens, teachers. To skills of L. children shall be trained by 6 — 7 years of life.
At school age skills of L. quite often weaken since children are more provided to themselves. Tasks of medical workers and a sanitary asset of school include every possible strengthening of these skills and providing conditions for respect for personal hygiene.
At advanced age observance of rules L. is of particular importance. All-hygienic actions, rational (on age) food, active recreation, charging stimulate compensatory processes of the growing old organism, increasing its resistance to diseases.
Strict observance of rules L. it is especially important in a case; if the patient is infectious, then L. becomes one of the main actions for prevention of spread of a disease in a family, the student's or working hostel (see. Leaving ).
Hygiene of a body
First-priority rule L. respect for purity of a body is. On average within a week sebaceous glands excrete from 100 to 300 g of skin fat, and stalemate — from 3,5 to 7 l of sweat. Accumulation on skin of skin fat, allocated from then metabolic products, pollution of skin with dust and various substances of the environment leads to decrease it protective and respiratory functions and to creation of conditions for reproduction on skin of pathogenic microorganisms. Purity of hands is especially important. It is established that during the drawing on skin of purely washed up hands of culture of bacteria the quantity them in 10 min. decreases by 85%, and on skin of dirty hands their quantity in 20 min. decreases only by 5%. Under nails about 95% of total quantity of the microorganisms which are on skin of hands are found. Therefore the correct care of nails and careful washing of hands after use of a toilet, before food and before cooking is important, at care of the baby, etc.
Purity of a body, clothes and especially hands of workers of public catering, tutors of a day nursery and kindergartens, and also medical staff is an indispensable condition of their work. Dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic actions at catering establishments, the food industry, among workers there is water handling, in preschool, school and other institutions is carried out under control sanitary and epidemiologic stations (see). However questions L. of staff of these enterprises and institutions shall be controlled incessantly by their heads, the doctor who is carrying out periodic medical examinations and also the attending physician.
Each person needs to know features of the skin and hair to consider it at care of them. So, e.g., at skin very thin and subject to irritation it is impossible to apply constantly soap, it is not always necessary to wash with soap a fine and dry hair, etc. After washing it is useful to wipe folds of skin with toilet vinegar or lotion (see. Cosmetics ). The people suffering from the increased perspiration, workers of the productions connected with pollution of skin, the agricultural worker, especially in the conditions of field works need to be washed up or take carefully upon termination of day of work a shower. In public baths and shower it is reasonable to put on own rubber slippers for bathing in order to avoid infection with fungus diseases skin (see). Recommendations about care of skin of a body, hair, skin of hands and legs — see. Skin, hygiene of skin .
After washing in a bath, a bathtub it is necessary to replace linen. It is recommended to change daily linen to people with the increased perspiration, in hot season, to the people working in the conditions of hot workshops and the increased dust content of air since absorption and air-permeable qualities of linen in these conditions are quickly lost under clothes moisture accumulates, skin is macerated, especially pleated. It is necessary to change linen before going to bed — to put on a nightgown, a pajamas; always it is necessary to use an individual towel for the person and sheets — for a wipe of a body; for hands and legs separate towels are also necessary. Each family member is recommended to have a separate bed. Terms of change and washing of linen, and also gigabyte. requirements to belyo — see. Linen .
The ground rule of use of clothes and footwear is their choice according to climate and a season of year in order to avoid overcooling or overheating (especially it concerns to children). It is recommended always, having come home, to replace clothes and footwear on house in order to avoid transfer of contagiums, especially if in the house there live small children; in the schoolhouse children shall put on so-called replaceable (house) footwear. Working clothes on pry. the enterprises leave in special cases, changing clothes after acceptance of a shower in clothes for the street; at home these clothes and footwear should be replaced with house. Gigabyte. requirements to clothes and footwear — see. Footwear , Clothes , Clothes protective .
Hygiene of an oral cavity includes individual care behind teeth and sanitation of an oral cavity (see). Care of an oral cavity consists in careful removal by a toothbrush of the soft dental plaque which is constantly formed and containing a large number of the microorganisms participating in destruction of a surface layer of enamel of teeth; if not to delete a dental plaque, it quickly enough turns in dental calculus (see) which causes and supports a disease of gums (see. Ulitis ). Individual care behind teeth — see. Caries of tooth, prevention . Sanitation of an oral cavity shall be carried out two times a year by the stomatologist; it is an obligatory action for a number of age groups (preschool and school age), for pregnant women and working some industrial enterprises.
Personal hygiene of the woman
Generative organs of the girl need to be contained in special purity since their skin is very gentle, easily vulnerable and has rather low resilience to infectious agents; without due care there can easily be a vulvitis (see. Vulvovaginitis ). After an urination and defecation generative organs of children of younger age should be washed warm boiled water by means of a cotton plug the careful movements in the direction from a pubis to a tailbone that the remains of excrements did not get on generative organs. After that it is necessary to drain skin, putting soft hydroscopic tissue or a pure diaper; at the slightest signs of irritation or an intertrigo to oil skin after drying sterile vegetable and to powder a thin coat of children's powder. In the absence of irritation in greasing or dusting there is no special need. From early age of girls it is necessary to accustom to daily bowel emptying in certain time and to a regular urination (continuous overflow of a rectum and bladder can bring in the subsequent to the wrong position of a uterus).
Since 5 — 6 years of girls it is necessary to accustom to independent care of generative organs. Daily washings of generative organs if they become carefully, do not cause in children of awakening of sexual feeling what some parents are afraid of. On the contrary, urine, the remains of fecal masses can cause irritation and an itch of generative organs. Girls shall wear the convenient closed pants which are not constraining movements not adjacent is dense to generative organs, the overcoolings allowing to avoid, hits of dust, dirt on area of a vulva. Pants need to be changed daily since vulval allocations which are available also for little girls and urine harden on pants and irritate a vulva that can cause raschesa, a vulvovaginitis.
At teenage age at the right time puberty (see) the girl shall gain all necessary skills of personal care already. The girl needs to be prepared for emergence of periods in advance psychologically. Mother or elder sister, school medics or the teacher shall tell girls in an available form about anatomo-fiziologich. features of a female body, having paid attention to questions sex education (see). At a normal current of periods the way of life shall not change. Exercises are allowed, but at the same time it is necessary to warn the girl that she abstained from jumps and heavy fizich. exercises, and also some sports (driving the bicycle, swimming); the girl is exempted from participation in competitions.
Girls should be taught rules which should be observed during periods. It is important to be careful of overcooling of a body, especially legs and the bottom of a stomach. During periods generative organs become decreases in protective forces of an organism and existence of a wound surface of a uterus, more susceptible to an infection in connection with a nek-eye. Therefore these days it is necessary to take daily a shower or to do water a gigabyte. procedures. It is possible to take a bath, but water shall not be hotter (better than t ° 37 — 39 °). Not less than two times a day wash external genitals warm water with soap, having previously carefully washed up hands. At first wash external genitals, then skin of hips and in the last turn — area of an anus; to sit down at a podmyvaniye in a basin inadmissibly.
For collecting of menstrual blood the gigabyte is recommended to use special. the linings made of bandage and cotton wool or sewed from a double layer of a gauze with laying from cotton wool. To change a bandage several times in days in process of its treatment, without allowing drying of blood. It is necessary to have several special pants swimming trunks (better from cotton) which also to change, without allowing drying up of blood on them; after washing to iron pants the iron.
From the beginning of sex life it is necessary to carry out additional a gigabyte. rules. So, after the first sexual intercourse within 2 — 3 days sexual abstinence that ruptures of a hymen could begin to live is necessary; it is necessary to abstain from sexual contact and in days of periods that contagiums did not get into a genital tract and not to cause bleeding. During pregnancy and after the delivery L. and all mode of life of the woman gain some features (see. Pregnancy , Puerperal period ).
In climacteric (see) the neuroendocrinal disturbances connected with reorganization of an organism often develop. Therefore, except all-hygienic actions, daily rubdown of a body by water (t ° 36 — 22 °), charging, stay in the fresh air, walk before going to bed are recommended.
Personal hygiene of the man
At teenage age the boy, as well as the girl, shall gain skills of L. — to observe purity of a body, a hair and clothes. About appearing at teenagers during puberty emissions (see), usually occurring during sleep, adults, the school doctor is better, shall warn boys, and also tell teenagers about features of a male and female body, develop the correct view of relationship of floors. The main objective of sex education — to teach the boy to manage the feelings, to prepare for future sex life both in moral, and in the hygienic relation, to warn against accidental sexual relations, to warn delicately about a possibility of infection with a venereal disease.
The boy and the adult man shall keep clean generative organs, daily wash them with warm water with soap, opening at the same time a preputial bag and washing away collecting smegma (see). After sexual intercourse generative organs should be washed warm water. It is necessary to warn young people that sexual intercourse in a pearl of odes of periods at the woman can lead not only to deviations in a female genital, but also to an inflammation of a male urethra that is connected with hit in it of clots and microorganisms.
Bibliography: Belyaev I. I. Sketches of a psychohygiene, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Novikova E. Ch. Zdorovye of a matgra — health of the child, M., 1971; P and p A. G., the School student B. I. and With about l with to and y Ya. P. Gigiyena of the woman, Kiev, 1966; Persianinov L. S. Health of the woman and motherhood, M., 1969; To Parents about children, under the editorship of. A. F. of a tour, L., 1975; Bragg P. C. The miracle of fasting for agelessness-physical, mental a spiritual rejuvenation, Santa Barbara, 1977; F e of-t i g B. u. a. Gesundheit fur die Familie, Lpz., 1976.
V. V. Zlobina.