From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PERKOLYATORA (synonym: diffusers, extractors) — the devices used to extraction pharmacological of active agents from medicinal vegetable raw materials by method of continuous filtering (percolation) of extragent through it. Percolation receive the majority of tinctures, liquid extracts, and also initial extracts by production of dense and dry extracts.

the Scheme of an industrial perkolyatora-extractor (in a section), with a capacity of 250 l: 1,6 — branch pipes for input of steam, 2 — a branch pipe for administration of extragent, 3 — the charging door for vegetable raw materials, 4 — a sleeve for the thermometer, 5 — the case of the device, 7 — a steam jacket, 8 — a branch pipe for a conclusion of condensate, 9 — a perforated bottom, 10 — the bubbler (the perforated final site of a steam line), 11 — a branch pipe for release of a pyorkolyat (extract), 12 — the hatch for unloading of the exhausted raw materials, 13 — basic «paws».

The item — cylindrical or tsilindrokonichesky vessels from aluminum or stainless steel of different capacity. Laboratory P. produce also from glass. From above P. is closed by a cover with a branch pipe for input of extragent, from below there is a blowoff cock over which on nek-rum distance the perforated cribriform bottom dimmed by a layer of filter cloth is located. The item with a steam jacket allows to make extraction during the heating and an otgonka of valuable extragent (alcohol, etc.) from the exhausted raw materials after the end of process (fig).

Important point of process of percolation is loading of the Item. Plant material is stacked in P. evenly, rather densely, without leaving emptiness. The crushed vegetable raw materials are previously moistened with necessary amount of extragent and left in the closed vessel for treatment and swelling. Slabonabukhayushchy vegetable raw materials can be loaded in the small portions in a dry form and to fill in layer-by-layer with extragent. The raw materials capable to slezhivatsya, stack layers between which place sitovy laying.

In addition to a perkolirovaniye it is possible to carry out to P. also other types extractions (see), napr, insisting, and also insisting with circulation. In the latter case after insisting during 24 — 48 hours the extract is merged from P., fill it with fresh extragent which after insisting during 3 — 6 hours and more several times is passed through P. for the purpose of the maximum saturation of an extract active ingredients. Then the extract is lowered, and raw materials are subjected 1 — 2 more time to similar fractional circulation, will not collect the necessary quantity of an extract yet.

Bibliography: I. A. Tekhnologiya's ants of drugs, t. 1, page 176, M., 1980.

I. A. Muravyev.