PERINATOLOGY (grech, peri around, about + armor. natus the birth + grech, logos the doctrine) — the section of obstetrics and pediatrics studying development and health protection of a fruit and the newborn in the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the 28th week of pregnancy when the weight of a fruit reaches 1000 and more and height of 35 cm and more, includes the period of childbirth and comes to an end by the end of the 7th days of life of the newborn. Allocation of this age period (in the 60th 20 century) is caused it by the big importance for physical, psychological and intellectual development of the child (see. Perinatal period ).
The main directions of researches in P. are connected with studying of interrelation of organisms of mother and a fruit (nervous, hormonal and immunol. relationship); structural and functional features of a female reproductive system, in particular and some closed glands, in the antenatal period (see. Antenatal period ); mechanisms of reaction of a maternal organism to change of a condition of a fruit; nature of uteroplacental blood circulation; processes of formation of separate bodies and systems of a fruit it is normal also of pathology (see. Organogenesis ), and also the changes happening in an organism of a fruit at the time of delivery including at separate obstetric grants and operations. As a result of considerable number of scientific research such directions in P. as cardiology and endocrinology of a fruit were allocated.
Various aspects of a pathogeny, clinic and diagnosis of asphyxia are developed (see. Asphyxia of a fruit and newborn ) and birth trauma (see), methods of their correction, and also methods of assessment of a state fruit (see) — an electrocardiography (see. Takhografiya ), phonocardiography, kardiotakhigrafiya, rheoencephalography, hormonal and biochemical, diagnostic methods, amnioskopiya (see), monitor observation (see), ultrasonic scanning (see. Ultrasonic diagnosis ), etc.
Great success is achieved in the field of studying of an immunopathology of pregnancy and diagnosis of hereditary pathology. Questions of adaptation of newborns normal are developed and at pathology, surgery of newborns, and first of all at inborn defects and it is purulent - septic diseases. Scientific research in P. promotes decrease perinatal pathology (see) and perinatal mortality (see). The big contribution to P.'s development was made by L. S. Persianinov, V. I. Bodyazhina, N. L. Gar-masheva, G. M. Savelyeva, K. V. Chachava, I. P. Yelizarova, V. A. Tabolin, Yu. E. Veltishchev.
Problems P. are studied in a number of scientific research institute of obstetrics and gynecology, including in All-Union research center on health protection of mother and child of M3 of the USSR, Leningrad awards of the Labour Red Banner in-those obstetrics and gynecology, and also on departments of obstetrics and gynecology of medical higher education institutions.
See also Antenatal protection of a fruit .
Bibliography: Gaal Y., etc. The intensive patrimonial block, the lane with Wenger., Budapest, 1979; Garmasheva N. JI. and Konstantinova H. H. Introduction to perinatal medicine, M., 1978; Gulkevichyu. B. Perinatal infections, Minsk, 1966; Kosheleva N. G. Prevention of perinatal incidence and mortality, M., 1979; Mu-chiyevg. Page and Frolova O. G. Health protection of a fruit and the newborn in the USSR, M., 1979; The Fruit and the newborn, under the editorship of «JI. S. Persianinova, M., 1974; Modern aspects of perinatology, under the editorship of G. M. Savelyeva, M., 1978; Diaz del Casti 1-1 about E. Pediatria perinatal, Mexico, 1974; Evans H. E. a. Glass L. Perinatal medicine, Hagerstown, 1976; L u peal., Ursu Ch. § i Ro^anL. Patologie perinatal^, Bucure§ti, 1978; Neonatology, diseases of the fetus and infant, ed. by R. E. Behrman, St Louis, 1973; P a-chyrembel W. u. Dudenhau-s e n J. W. Grundriss der Perinatalmedi-zin, B. — N. Y., 1972; Perinatal pharmacology, problems and priorities, ed. by J. Dancis a. J; C. Hwang, N. Y., 1974; Reviews in perinatal medicine, ed. by E. M. Scarpelli a. E. Y. Cosmi, v. 2 — 3, N. Y., 1978 — 1979.
O. G. Frolova.