PEAT PRODUCTION, of II-
hyena of work. Etc. — the industry occupied with production and processing of peat.
Peat is formed in the course of dying off and incomplete disintegration of helads in the conditions of excess moistening and limited access of oxygen. Peat finds application in fuel quality, fertilizers, raw materials for receiving wax, physiologically active agents, fodder yeast, oxalic to - you, furfural, insulating plates, etc. Medical peat is used for carrying out a torfolecheniye (see).
Development of fields of peat includes several stages: drainage and surface preparation of the peat field, dredging (production), drying, cleaning, loading and transportation of peat. All operations of industrial development of fields of peat in our country are mechanized and are carried out by special cars. Work by peat cars is accompanied by noise (see), vibration (see), intensive pollution of the air environment exhaust gases (see) and dust. Working conditions of operators - mekhaniza-torov at extraction of peat depend on a design of a cabin of the car, extent of its sealing, vibro-and noise isolations, existence and efficiency of ventilation, heating. Idiosyncrasy of work at the enterprises for extraction of peat is seasonality of works.
Processes of cleaning, loading and transportation of peat are connected with considerable dust formation. Peat dust of a polimorfn, vysokodispersn, consists generally of organic matters (humic to - t, amino acids, bitumens), contains free silicon dioxide (less than 10%). In addition to peat dust microorganisms get to air of a working zone (a bacterium, mold fungi, yeast, actinomycetes). Peat dust possesses the expressed sensibilizing action on an organism.
Processes of receiving of peat of coke, pitch, bitumen, wax, furfural are connected with possible impact on workers of solvents of toxic chemical substances, including paraffin, anthracene, phenanthrene, esters. Pitches possess the expressed photosensitizing action. The Nek-ry liquid and firm products of chemical decomposition of peat which are a part of pitch and coke are oncogenous.
In structure of incidence with temporary disability at workers Other diseases of upper respiratory tracts and lungs prevail.
Improvement of working conditions and prevention of incidence on Other includes technical, ergonomic, hygienic, sanitarnotekhnichesky and medico-preventive actions. At extraction of peat it is necessary to use the special cars adapted for these purposes. During the processing of peat complex mechanization and automation of technological processes, sealing of the main sources of dust formation (crushers, conveyors, etc.), the equipment by their local suctions, the dispersed giving of an induced air is provided in an upper zone of the workshop, wet or pneumatic cleaning of rooms and the equipment. The persons performing work in the conditions of the increased dust content need to use a respirator of the Petal ShB-1 type and an antiheat-vymi points (see Points, Respirators). Performing preliminary and periodic medical examinations is obligatory (see. Medical examination).
For workers of a number of the professions occupied on production and processing of peat preferential terms of work — additional issue and are provided the shortened working hours.
Bibliography: B about d I to about V. S., etc.
Hygienic assessment of working conditions in production of peat wax, Zdravookhr. Belarus, No. 3, page 37, 1979; And r-
mister N. S., Bodyako V. S. and Pasch-kovsky G. I. Some questions of the hygienic characteristic of the productions making peat insulating plates, in the same place, No. 6, page 48, 1966; P and in l yu t and N and 3. N and Bodyako V. S. Hygienic assessment of efficiency of recreational actions at the torfobriketny plants, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 9, page 18, 1981.
V. S. Bodyako.