PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY — the medicobiological science studying structural bases of pathological processes. In P.'s problems and. enters: identification morfol, changes of bodies, fabrics and cells at diseases, and also processes of recovery; clarification of the reasons, mechanisms and dynamics of these changes; comparison morfol, changes with results a wedge., biochemical and patofiziol, researches. Object of a research P. and. the material received during the opening of the dead from diseases, the bodies and fabrics removed during operative measures and excised with the diagnostic purpose and also the material taken from a lab is. the animals who underwent various influences in experimental conditions. Solving problems of an etiology and a pathogeny, a nosology and classification of diseases, P. and. promotes development of philosophical problems of medicine and the general pathology, gives help to clinical physicians in recognition of diseases, control of the course of treatment, finds out the mechanism of complications and the reason of deaths, analyzes errors of diagnosis — is one of important links between theoretical and applied medicine.

Item and. it is accepted to divide into the general and private. General P. and. gives morfol, the characteristic patol, the processes having the general patterns of development and common features irrespective of localization and conditions of their emergence, napr, dystrophies, a necrosis, disturbances of blood circulation, a hypertrophy, atrophy, inflammation, regeneration, tumors, immunity, and also immune responses of hypersensitivity. Morfol, data on these processes are a basis of the general doctrine about a disease. Private P. and. studies morfol, bases and a pathogeny separate nozol, forms.

By the main method of a research, to-ry uses P. and., the method — observation is morfol, naked eye and by means of hl. obr. optical devices.

Current state of P. and. it is characterized by continuous expansion and deepening of its bonds with clinic and pilot studies. Development of technology of operative measures, anesthesiology, resuscitation, transplantology, replenishment of an arsenal of pharmaceuticals changed classical pictures of diseases of the person (see. Pathomorphism ). Value of pathoanatomical opening increased — its task is not only establishment of disease and its complications, but also an explanation in a complex with data of intravital researches of the reasons of inefficiency to lay down. actions, unsuccessfulness of resuscitation, emergence inf. complications, etc. Especially the importance is attached to clarification of the reasons and the nature of an adverse effect on a current and an outcome of the disease to lay down. actions. Wide use in clinic of such noninvasive methods of a research as a computer tomography, ultrasonic diagnosis, etc., allows to define visually the center patol, process, localization of a tumor and its metastasises, to find blood clots, to establish what thickness walls of ventricles of heart, etc. have; it opens big perspectives for intravital P.'s development and. Were of particular importance biopsy (see) and cytologic research (see), to-rye are made with the diagnostic purpose, for control carried out to lay down. actions, and also for specification of the diagnosis and volume of an operative measure during operation. Thus, the traditional role of the pathologist limited by his participation in the postclinical (posthumous) analysis of a disease more and more is replaced with its role as clinical morphologist.

The tendency of differentiation of medical disciplines is followed by progressing private P.'s differentiation ampere-second emergence of its new sections. It does especially urgent the general P.'s development and. as sciences synthetic, allowing to estimate deeply and comprehensively the private facts. On the one hand, P. and. approaches clinic, and with another — it integrally intertwines with biochemistry and physiology thanks to emergence of electronic and microscopic, histochemical, immunomorphological and other methods of a research. In changes of nuclear and cytoplasmatic organellas of a patanatoma define a structural basis of fluctuations funkts, activities of a cell and disturbances of its activity under the influence of pathogenic factors more and more surely. In this respect such methods of a research as an electronic and microscopic autoradiography, edges matter allows to judge at the same time the nature of biosynthetic processes, their intensity and localization in a cell. Item and. becomes the rule of knowledge of a structural basis funkts, activities of bodies and disturbances of this structure. Modern P. and. it is characterized by the increased level as it is qualitative go * and quantification patol, processes (see. Morphometry medical ).

P.'s development and. occurs in the conditions of complex studying patol. process at all levels of the organization: organismic level allows to gain an impression about the general panorama of a disease, a role and participation in it of various bodies and systems; studying of organ and fabric changes helps clarification of qualitative features and topography patol, processes with the damaged body; submicroscopy (see), histochemical methods of a research (see) and other methods disclose essence of the changes happening in a cell and allow to compare them in the structurally functional relation with results of biochemical, radio isotope and other researches. Lack of data on structural changes at one of levels deprives of the researcher of an opportunity to gain an integral impression about the studied process.

Morphology (see) and P. and. are the main source of that actual material, on Krom the materialism in natural sciences was approved. This material putting various manifestations of life activity of an organism on a real basis promotes the approval of the materialistic solution of such major problems of biology and medicine as a problem of a ratio of structure and function, an organism as whole, etc. P.'s role and. in the further statement of materialistic dialectics in relation to pathology steadily increases as also its practical value for diagnosis and treatment of diseases increases.

In P.'s development and. the main can be conditionally allocated three the period. During the first period (to the middle of 19 century), to-ry it is possible to call macroscopic, pathoanatomical changes studied preferential with the naked eye — registered color, a consistence, the sizes of bodies, emergence in them unusual educations, traumatic and other damages at various diseases. Second period of development of P. and. (till 50th 20 century) it can be called microscopic since it is connected using microscope (see) for studying of changes of bodies at diseases. Third, recent period of development of P. and. it is possible to call ultrastructural in connection with complex use of a light submicroscopy, histochemical methods of a research, autoradiography (see), immunomorphologies (see), allowing to carry out at the same time the structural and functional analysis of intracellular educations.

One of the largest generalizations made in the first period of development of P. and., J. Morganyi's work «About location and the reasons of the diseases opened by means of a section» (1761) is, in Krom the idea of comparison of symptoms of a disease with morfol, changes of bodies, laid the foundation for the kliniko-anatomic direction in studying of diseases of the person was for the first time put forward. A little later than M. Bish made an attempt to compare a wedge, displays of a disease with changes not only of bodies, but also fabrics. At the beginning of 19 century the first managements on patol, J. Gregory's anatomy, 1809 appeared; Bailey (M. Baillie), 1826; Houpa (J. To a hole), 1837. The idea about a role and value of pathological anatomy for a raising of level of applied medicine is carried out to them.

The expressed kliniko-anatomic orientation was accepted by P. and. in Russia. To transfer of the guide of Bailey according to P. the ampere-second of English by the associate professor of the Moscow medical academy I. A. Kostomarov attached the treatise, in Krom it indicated studying of defeat of separate bodies in their interrelation the need; he considered that it is necessary to combine anatomic researches with pathophysiological, «... otherwise our science will be dead if it is limited tokmo to a dead body». I. A. Kostomarov saw P.'s problems and. in definition of the anatomic changes caused by diseases and in, that «... to try to comprehend physiologically and fi-ziologiko-patholologically the mechanism of education and development of this change...» and to define the relation «... between anatomic changes and the phenomena vital». First period of development of P. and. came to the end with emergence of the multivolume guide to pathological anatomy To. Rokitansky, in Krom the systematic description of morphology of the major diseases of the person is given; in the management the so-called humoral pathology considering various «kraza» resulting from «damage of juice», this or that disturbance of a condition of proteins etc. as a basis of pathoanatomical changes of bodies gained development.

Further development of P. and. enough accurate parallels between anatomic changes of bodies and diverse disturbances of their function were limited to difficulty of carrying out: at expressed funkts, disturbances quite often it was not possible to find essential structural changes. From this drew a conclusion that diseases can be the cornerstone only funkts, the changes which are not followed morphological and therefore a wedge, the picture of a disease in such cases cannot be completely explained with the finds made during the opening of a corpse.

Using a microscope for studying of changes of bodies at diseases crisis kliniko-anatomi-cheskogo the directions was overcome. In the middle of 19 century R. Virkhov analyzed morfol. changes of bodies at various diseases from positions created by it cellular theory (see). Extensive researches were generalized by R. Virkhov in the classical work «Cellular Pathology» (1858). The microscope sharply expanded opportunities morfol, the analysis of functions of an organism and their disturbances at patol, processes. It turned out that funkts, the disturbance keeping the usual sizes, color and a consistence of body it is frequent not - the finding explanations, dug are connected with a circulatory disturbance, destructive changes of cells, an inflammation. R. Virkhov's doctrine considered functional disturbances only as changes of cells, i.e. dense parts of an organism, and approved «solidary» pathology.

Second period of development of P. and. it was characterized by emergence of a number of recent trends of the researches which played a huge role in progress of theoretical and applied medicine. It was considerably connected with improvement histologic methods of a research (see), provided a possibility of the versatile structurally functional analysis of changes of cells and intercellular substance. Use of the fixing and sealing fluids, filling of material in paraffin and photoxylin, creation of methods of the conclusion of drugs and perfect microtomes provided the thin sections of fabrics, and use of new dyes opened ample opportunities for identification of various structures of a cell, qualitative and quantification of a kernel, cytoplasm, etc. Development of the technology of preparation of big cuts — through all body or its considerable part (see. Kristellera method ) — allowed to estimate prevalence and topography patol, process. Great opportunities for clarification of a structurally functional condition of cells and intercellular substance at patol, processes opened in the first half of 20 century with implementation in P. and. luminescent, ultraviolet and polarization microscopy, autoradiography, histochemistry.

Improvement of methods morfol. researches promoted bystry development of all sections of the general P. and. So, only external manifestations of inflammatory process were registered earlier and were described, e.g., as «redness and nality vessels», «tarnishing and opacification», «filmy imposings», «a purulent discharge» etc.; in a statement of dynamics of fabric changes did not go further registration of exudation of a liquid part of blood and edematization, and did not even mention participation of cellular elements in inflammatory reaction. As a result of the microscopic examinations conducted at the end of 19 century data on phases of inflammatory process, cellular composition of exudate, etc. were received. At the beginning of 20 century in connection with progress immunology (see) and allergology (see) the theory of an inflammation gained further development in the doctrine about an immune, allergic inflammation, and later in establishment morfol. bases of reactions of hypersensitivity. By means of a microscope structural bases of disturbances of microcirculation were deciphered, the main stages of formation of blood clot are found out, the mechanism of development and a morphogenesis of a heart attack are studied that allowed to create again the doctrine about disturbances of blood circulation. The new section P. was created and. — the doctrine about «painful changes of cells» according to R. Virkhov, i.e. about dystrophies. Ideas of proteinaceous, fatty, carbohydrate dystrophies played an important role in identification of material substrate of disturbances of functions of various bodies, understanding of dynamics of development of diseases, establishment of structural changes at each of them. The doctrine about dystrophies added further by means of cytochemical researches turned into one of central in the general pathology; it concentrates data on structural bases of fluctuations funkts, activities of bodies, morfol, their expression funkts, exhaustions, changes of cells and intercellular substance at action of various pathogenic factors.

On the basis of R. Virkhov's researches the doctrine about regeneration began to develop quickly. In P.'s textbooks and. the last third of 19 century there are heads devoted to a statement of both the general patterns of reparative regeneration, and specific manifestations and its features in different bodies and fabrics. Detailed studying of a morphogenesis of processes was for the first time begun organizations (see) and metaplasias (see). K. Rokitansky and other researchers during the studying of a hypertrophy and atrophy described their external manifestations. Further at microscopic examination of these processes it was established that increase or reduction of number of cells, and also the sizes of each of them is their cornerstone. The foundation was so laid for the modern doctrine about hypertrophies (see), hyperplasia (see) and atrophies (see). The received materials became the base of the new section P. and. — doctrines about structural bases of compensatory and adaptive reactions of an organism and processes of recovery.

Microscopic examination of fabrics gave an incentive for development oncology (see): the doctrine about features of a structure of a tumor cell began to develop, the cellular structure was identified tumors (see) that allowed to make idea of their histogenesis, the foundation of gistogenetichesky classification of tumors depending on fabric accessory of the cellular elements making them was laid, patterns of innidiation of various new growths, changes of degree of a cellular differentiation, etc. are studied.

Ideas of morphology obshchepatol. processes, developed on the basis of their studying from positions of the cellular theory, were a new stage in private P.'s development and. and nosology (see) in general: already by the end 19 — the beginning is 20 century old private P. and. was replenished with data on features of localization and the nature of fabric changes at various diseases, dynamics of development of these changes in the course of a disease, patterns of their regressing in the course of recovery and under the influence of treatment.

In the second half of 19 century considerable development of private P. and. occurred in the area inf. pathologies that is connected with opening of activators inf. diseases of the person. At the same time clarification of structural changes of bodies in dynamics under the influence of each of activators was a priority. Later, in connection with discovery of viruses researches of viral diseases joined researches of a patomorfologiya of bacterial infections. For morfol, researches in the area inf. pathologies in 1943 the State award USSR to I. A. Chali-sov, and in 1962 — to A. M. Antonov was awarded.

Progress of kliniko-experimental development inf. pathologies were one of premises of development of the doctrine about the changed reactivity of an organism. Examination morfol, features of allergic reactions played a huge role in formation of ideas of a pathogeny of many diseases. Achievements of immunology, the foundation a cut were laid by I. I. Mechnikov, disturbances of immune processes allowed to determine consistent patterns that laid the foundation for development immunopathologies (see).

As a result of the eksperimentalnomorfologichesky researches conducted by A. I. Ignatovsky, N. N. Anichkov and S. S. Halatov the model of atherosclerosis was for the first time created and the foundation of the doctrine about it patol, anatomy, a morphogenesis, a pathogeny is laid. Morfol, researches promoted formation of the kliniko-anatomic characteristic and the solution of questions of a pathogeny of an idiopathic hypertensia, symptomatic hypertensive states. The important role was played morfol, by researches in formation and development of the doctrine about coronary heart disease, myocardial dystrophies, etc. For development of a row * questions of a morphogenesis and a pathogeny of diseases of cardiovascular system the State awards of the USSR to A. I. Abrikosov and H were awarded. To N. Anichkov (1944), A. N. Koltover (1971).

Development of nevropatologiya in the second half of 19 century was considerably caused by improvement gistol, technicians and a possibility of microscopic examination of nervous cells, nerve fibrils and neuroglias. Neurohistologic researches promoted formation of ideas of structural bases of a nervous trophicity. Complex microscopic and bacterial, studying patol, processes in lungs was a basis, on a cut representations about patol, anatomy and a pathogeny of pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, an atelectasis and a fluid lungs were created sovr. Ideas of damages of kidneys were significantly developed on the basis of their microscopic studying at various inf. diseases, disturbances of exchange, poisonings, etc. in a complex about bacterial. and fiziol, researches.

Experimental gistol, researches were a basis for studying of structural changes of cells of hemadens and disturbances of mechanisms of formation and release of hormones at diseases. In the middle of 20 century the cells located in a mucous membrane and a parenchyma of various internals, emitting biologically active agents and playing an important role in regulation of functions of an organism were open also pathologies are normal (see. Argentaffin cells ). These data were important, in particular, for expansion of representations about funkts, morphology of bodies went. - kish. path.

Thanks to creation of methods of decalcification the possibility of microscopic examination of diseases of bone system and its changes at somatic, endocrine diseases, nek-ry malformations etc. appeared. For development of a number of problems of pathology of bone system to A. V. Rusakov, etc. by Vinogradova in 1967 awarded the State award.

Due to the technical progress in 20 century bystry development began professional pathology (see). The important role in it belonged to the pathoanatomical researches promoting clarification of mechanisms of interaction of harmful substances with cellular elements, features of compensatory and adaptive reactions of an organism in response to influence of the prof. of vrednost.

New section of pathology and P. and. the doctrine which arose in 20 century about radiation defeats was, in Krom the most perfect methods of the structural analysis allowing to establish and trace dynamics of damages of a kernel and cytoplasm found the appendix.

Microscopic and gistokhy, the research of connecting fabric expanded idea of its changes at various patol, processes, having allowed to allocate group collagenic diseases (see). For a cycle of works on studying of a patomorfogenez of rheumatic diseases to A. I. Strukov in 1974 the Lenin award was awarded.

The doctrine about traumatic damages and a wound process to the second half of 19 century was based only on macroscopic observations. In microscopic examinations the main consistent patterns of a current of a wound process were determined (its features in various bodies and fabrics, relationship of various cellular elements at stages of a wound repair), the comparative structural analysis of efficiency of various methods of treatment, etc. is submitted. These data promoted development of the doctrine about a fighting injury (dynamics of a wound process, its complications, traumatic exhaustion, is purulent - resorptive fever, etc.) put in N. I. Pirogov's works. The basic researches which revived and developed N. I. Pirogov's doctrine belong And. To V. Davydovsky: to Krom for development of problems of the general pathology, and in particular a wound process, in 1964 the Lenin award was awarded.

Big perspectives for the solution of questions of a pathogeny of diseases of the person are opened by the further development of problems of comparative pathology which is widely developed, e.g., in Ying-those experimental pathology and therapy of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

In 20 century P. began to develop intensively and. diseases of children and newborns taking into account anatomo-funk-tsionalnykh features of the growing organism.

In the first half of 20 century broad development was gained biochemical, and fiziol. researches of a cell, results to-rykh laid the foundation molecular biology (see). It was necessary to find out in what structures of a cell biochemical reactions, what organellas of a kernel and cytoplasm proceed and as provide specific functions of a cell. For the solution of these questions there was not enough research with the help biol, a microscope. A cell, keeping the value as a uniform indivisible base unit, could not serve as an object for further development of a question of a material basis funkts any more, disturbances since already «it was too big» for this purpose. In the kliniko-anatomic direction of researches there was a situation similar developed in the middle of 19 century, with only that difference that at that time became necessary to have an object of a research structure, smaller, than body, now — more tiny, than a cell. And just as in the middle of 19 century this situation was liquidated by implementation in medicine microscopic is-' followings, in the 50th 20 century it was solved on a basis ultramikrosko-a pichesky research by means of a supermicroscope. The most difficult intracellular architecture was established, it is shown that the kernel and cytoplasm consist of a set of specialized ultrastructures or organellas, each of to-rykh is responsible for a certain link of operation of the so-called intracellular conveyor, on Krom the processes defining function of a cell step by step proceed. These researches laid the foundation modern an ultrastruk-tourist's noma for the period of development of P. and. Feature of this period is the complex use of a submicroscopy and methods of a histochemistry, autoradiography, immunomorphology which allowed to carry out at the same time structural and funkts, the analysis of intracellular changes. The material concerning changes of cellular organellas at various diseases of the person, dynamics of these changes, patterns of recovery of cellular structures in the course of recovery under the influence of modern methods of treatment, etc. is saved up. It became clear that under the influence of pathogenic influences in organellas of a cell nek-ry all-pathological processes are developed, to-rye are observed in fabrics and bodies: hypostasis, necrosis, regeneration, hyperplasia. In an electronic mikroskopi-cheskikh, histochemical, immunomorfol. researches new data about patolo go anatomic changes of bodies were obtained at various diseases, to-rye allowed to find out many parties of a pathogeny and dynamics of development of the processes before hidden from the researcher. Studying of diseases of the person at the ultrastructural level approached the corresponding biochemical researches and, thereby, molecular pathology.

Expression of communication of P. of ampere-second a wedge, medicine was prosection business — the most important form of use of achievements of P. and. in medical practice. In Russia prosection business began to develop in the first military hospitals (see. Opening ). Already during this period the great value was attached to comparison of symptoms of a disease to the changes found during the opening that found reflection in the instructions and manuals made in 1754 by P.3. Kondoidi in which the kliniko-anatomic analysis was regarded as one of the most important factors of upgrading to lay down. work and improvement of iatrotechnics. An important role in P.'s development and. and prosection business played opening of medikokhirurgichesky academies in St. Petersburg and Moscow / Great attention to P.'s development and. and prosection business domestic clinical physicians I. V. Varvinsky, M. Ya. Mudroye, N. I. Pirogov, S. P. Botkin, G. A. Zakharyin, etc. gave.

In the created ambassador of Great October socialist revolution to the state health system prosection business became special service, edges gradually got accurate organizational forms. The essential role in it was played by the commission of prosectors at the Moscow city public health department (A. I. Abrikosov, I. V. Davydovsky, V. T. Talalayev) and the prosection sector pathoanatomical about-va in Leningrad (G. V. Blinders, S. S. Vail, V. G. Garshin, V. D. Tsinzerling). A lot of work on the organization of pathoanatomical service was carried out in Rostov-on-Don (Sh. I. Krinitsky), Kiev (M. K. Dahl), Kharkiv (G. L. Dearman), Minsk (I. T. Titov), Kuibyshev (N. F. Shlyapnikov), Smolensk (V. G. Molotkov) and other cities. Improvement of prosection business was promoted by orders, provisions and instructions on the organization of work of pathoanatomical departments, checking of clinical and anatomic diagnoses, holding kliniko-anatomic conferences, drawing up pathoanatomical reports, etc. For the aid to prosectors a number of handbooks on the pathoanatomical equipment, checking of the clinical and anatomic diagnosis was published: A. I. Abrikosova (1948), S. S. Vail (1947), D. I. Golovin (1957), G. A. Merkulova (1956), A. V. Smolyannikova (1977), etc. Distribution was gained begun at the initiative of I. V. Davydovsky kliniko-anatomic conferences (see), played a big role in upgrading of medical and diagnostic work.

In days of the Great Patriotic War the pathoanatomical service in field army and rear hospitals was improved. The organization of the Central pathoanatomical laboratory (TsPAL) at the Head military and sanitary department of Red Army, front, army pathoanatomical laboratories (PAL), pathoanatomical departments of large hospitals of GB of fronts and evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava of the USSR under the direction of hl. pathologist of the Soviet army (A. A. Vasilyev, M. F. Glazunov, N. A. Kra-evsky) and hl. the pathologist of Management evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava of the USSR (I. V. Davydovsky) provided uniform treatment patol. the processes caused by a fighting injury. The help to the management of a health service in improvement of the organization and upgrading of the medical help was carried out. Scientific development of the materials received by pathologists in the years of war allowed to study questions at issue of a fighting injury and «diseases of wartime», to-rye were generalized in the multivolume work «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945.» and in a number of S. S. Vail's monographs (1943), A. P. Avtsyna (1946), I. V. Davydovsky (1950—1954), A. V. Smolyannikova (1960), etc. The unique material collected by military prosectors is stored in the Military-medical museum in Leningrad. Experience of pathoanatomical service during the Great Patriotic War promoted its more harmonious organization in peace time. It was created in-t of the chief pathologists of the republics, edges, areas and the large cities. Ying-that morphology of the person of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences is included in structure by TsPAL, on to-ruyu the obligation of the methodical center of pathoanatomical service was assigned; one of actions for its improvement — creation of the joint pathoanatomical departments that facilitated systematization and scientific processing of section and biopsy material, expanded a possibility of use of modern methods of a research.

Problems P. and. till 20th 20 century hl were developed. obr. at departments P. and. medical in-t, and further and laboratories of scientific research institute. In Russia put with I a number of pathoanatomical schools — Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkiv, Kiev, Kazan, etc. First department P. and., created in Moscow un-those in 1849, A. Y. Polunin — the founder of the Moscow pathoanatomical school headed. I. F were A. I. Polunin's successors on department. Klein, and then M. N. Nikiforov is the author of one of the first and most famous textbooks according to P. and. A. I. Abrikosov — the outstanding scientist, one of the Soviet P.'s founders was M. N. Nikiforov's pupil and his successor on department and., founder of big school of pathologists. Further this department was headed by A. I. Abrikosov's pupil — A. I. Strukov; since 1972 it is occupied by A. I. Strukov's pupil — V. V. Serov. Outstanding representatives of the Moscow school of pathologists are I. V. Davydovsky, M. A. Skvortsov. Big contribution to development of various areas P. and. representatives of the Moscow school G. of Koritsky, Yu. M. Lazovsky, B. N. Mo-gilnitsky, I. F. Pozharisky, A brought. V. Rusakov, L. I. Smirnov, P.E. Snesarev, V. T. Talalayev, B. G. Shtefko, A. P. Avtsyn, T. P. Vinogradova, N. A. Krayev-sky, N. K. Permyakov, Ya. L. Rapoport, D. S. Sarkisov, V. V. Serov, etc.

Large domestic school P. and. is Leningrad (St. Petersburg). Since 1840 the course of opening of corpses in Medicochirurgical academy was conducted by N. I. Pirogov. In 1859 according to its offer the department P. was open and., to-ruyu T. S. Illinsky headed. Since 1867 M. M. Rudnev managed this department, to-rogo consider the founder of the St. Petersburg school P. and. Further this department K. N. Vinogradov, H directed. N. Anichkov, A. N. Chistovich. Big contribution to development of various problems P. and. M. V. Voyno-Yasenets-ky, V. G. Garshin, M. F. Glazunov, K. P. Ulezko-Stroganova, B brought. JI. Tsinzerling, F. Ya. Chistovich, G. V. Blinders, O.K. Khmelnytsky.

Big contribution to P.'s development and. also D.F. Lyambl, V. P. Krylov, N. F. Melnikov-Razvedenkov, G. N. Minkh, V. K. brought high-HIV, A. I. Smirnova-Zamkov, I. V. Toroptsev, Yu. V. Gulkevich, I. I. Shirokogorov, V. K. Zhgenti.

Expansion of pathoanatomical researches was promoted by creation patolo go the anatomic centers and laboratories in scientific research institute. The role of head establishment to areas morfol, researches is played by Ying t organized in 1960 of morphology of the person of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

Considerable development was gained by P. and. in the countries of the socialist commonwealth: urgent problems of pathology are intensively developed, prosection work is organized, special magazines are issued. Between pathologists of these countries and the Soviet pathologists close creative ties are established, broad exchange of experience in a form of scientific business trips, participations in congresses, conferences etc. is carried out.

Abroad significant contribution to P.'s development and. brought And. ORT, Lyubarsh (O. Lubarsch), R. Ressle, Veygert (To. Weigert), B. Fischer - Wa - zeljs, Boret (M. Borst), L. Ashoff, K. Shmorl, G. Herxheimer, H. Hamperl, Veykselbaum (And. Weichselbaum), K. L. P. Masson, A. Polikar, T. Mallori, N. Foote, etc.

Plays an important role in exchange of experience of scientific and organizational work of pathologists organized in 1947. All-Union scientific about-in pathologists, a cut holds regularly congresses, plenums of board, a conference. In 1969 it about-in was included into the International council about-in pathologists. The main publication, in Krom publishes results of the majority of pathoanatomical researches, the Archive of Pathology magazine founded in 1935 is (originally, till 1946, it was called «Archive of pathological anatomy and pathological physiology»). Since 1976 VINYTI monthly abstract magazine «General questions of pathological anatomy» is issued, since 1978 in the «Results of Science and Technology» series of VINITI there are releases «Pathological anatomy» devoted to separate problems. Works Leningrad scientific about-va pathologists are annually published. The wide experience of work of the Soviet pathologists is generalized in the multivolume guide to pathological anatomy (1956 — 1964) based by A. I. Abrikosov and completed by A. I. Stru-kov. For the first time under N. A. Krayevsky and A. V. Smolyan-nikov's edition the domestic guide to pathoanatomical diagnosis of tumors of the person (1971) is created. In 1975 the atlas of tumors of the person was published (D. I. Golovin).

P.'s teaching and. in medical higher education institutions it is conducted on the 3rd (the general and private P. and.) and the 5th (clinical P. and.) courses. In the USSR, unlike other countries, at the initiative of I. V. Davydovsky private P.'s teaching and. it is carried out not on organ, and by the nosological principle. Except theoretical knowledge, students get acquainted with bases of the pathoanatomical equipment, documentation, kliniko-anatomic analysis of results of openings. Methods of teaching P. and. are improved on f-takh professional development and at educational and methodical conferences. In 1979 there was P.'s textbook and. (A. I. Strukov, V. V. Serov). Training according to P. and. for departments of medical in-t, pathoanatomical departments of BC, departments of scientific research institute carry out through a subinternship, an internship, an internship and a postgraduate study. Great value for further development of P. and. and trainings of pathologists have departments P. and. in-t of improvement of doctors and department Central in-that improvements of doctors; at these departments receive primary specialization and there undergo improvement doctors-pathologists.



Bibliography:

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A. I. Strukov, A. V. Smolyannikov, D. S. Sarkisov.

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