PARAGUAY, the Republic of Paraguay — the state in the central part of South America. The area is 406,8 thousand km 2 . Population of 2,97 million people (1979). The capital of Asuncion (463,7 thousand zhit., 1978). Administrative division; 19 departments, in to-rye enter districts and municipiums, the special capital district. Ofits. language — Spanish, but 45% of Paraguayans speak only language of Indian nationality of guarani.
The item — the republic. The head of state and the governments — the president. The legislature is carried out by the congress (consists of the senate and the Chamber of Deputies), executive — the government.
The country from S. on Yu. the river Paraguay with strongly boggy floodplain is crossed. The woods borrow apprx. 1/2 territories of the country. Climate of tropical monsoons.
The item — backward agrarian, dependent on the foreign capital (the USA, Argentina, Great Britain and Germany) the country. The basis of the economy — page - x. production, livestock production and forestry where 54% of the population are busy. Apprx. a half of peasants have no earth.
The main population — Paraguayans; in zap. parts of the country live Indians (apprx. 30 thousand people). Average population density 7,3 people on 1 sq.km (1979).
Data of the natural movement of the population and dignity. statistics on the country in general are absent, data only on districts where registration is carried out are provided. In 1976, according to official not complete national data (for 1000 zhit.), birth rate made 8,5, the general mortality 3,4, a natural increase 5,1; child mortality the same year reached 86,5 on 1000 live-born. Average life expectancy in 1970 — 1975 made 60,3 years for men and 63,6 years for women. Children up to 15 years in 1977 made 44,7% of the population.
In 1977 in the country 1087 cases of tuberculosis (1031 cases in 1975), 62 — leprosies, 1094 — whooping cough, 78 — encephalitis, 411 — inf were registered. hepatitis (252 in 1975), 156 — malaria, 1221 — syphilis (588 in 1975), 741 — a gonococcal infection (492 in 1975), 13 785 — flu and others inf. diseases. The natural centers of a trypanosomiasis (Sha-gasa disease), a skin leushmaniosis, yellow fever of forest type meet, intestinal helminthoses (an ascaridosis, etc.),
the Main reasons for death are eurysynusic (on 100 000 zhit.) in 1976 there were diseases of cardiovascular system — 166 cases, flu and pneumonia — 88,9, malignant new growths — 57,4, vascular damages of a brain — 60,2, inf. and parasitic diseases — 143,8, accidents, poisonings and injuries — 53,5. In 1976 children under 5 years made 30,8% of total number of the dead.
Performs management of health care mines - in health care and social security, the bureau of the public relations, bureau of the international medical relations, the general secretariat and legal bureau, the general management of public health care consisting of departments of medical care, protection of motherhood and the childhood, epidemiology, a dignity are a part to-rogo. educations, biostatistics, stomatol, the help, construction, nurse business, pharm, services, mental health care, the prof. of training and departments — on coordination of activity of medical services in districts of health care (the country is divided into 9 districts of health care), social security, administrative. Also the bodies of social insurance of workers, employees and their families headed in-volume of social security deal with issues of health care in the country, to-ry has network of healthcare institutions. In 1974 system medical - a dignity. the help 77% of the population of the country, including 56% by healthcare institutions, 7% — social insurance, 10% — medical - a dignity were captured. service of army, 2% — medical service of police and 2% — medical service for workers un-that.
In 1975 in the country there were 143 medical institutions on 3816 beds (14,4 beds on 10 000 zhit.): 91-tsa the general type on 2167 beds (79 state and 12 private), 45 local or rural BCs on 521 beds, 1 maternity home on 110 beds, 1 inf.-tsa on 28 beds, 1 oncological-tsa on 48 beds, 1 orthopedic-tsa on 47 beds, 1 tubercular-tsa on 300 beds, 1 psychiatric-tsa on 495 beds and 1 leper colony on 100 beds. In 1976 in the country there were 255 extra medical institutions, including 15 polyclinic departments at-tsakh, 233 center and a post of health care and 7 out-patient clinics.
Primary medical - a dignity. the help in rural districts appears posts of health care, to-rye are developed for service of groups of the population numbering less than 2 thousand zhit.
In the centers of municipiums, to-rykh is 171, and also in other settlements of municipiums with the population of St. 2 thousand people the centers of health care with hospital beds function. The regional centers would be available regional the general type, with number of beds St. 50. Health protection of children and women is carried out by the general health service. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of the country not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
The national service of hygiene of the environment is engaged in questions of water supply and the sewerage of the inhabited places. In 1975 32% city and apprx. 3,5% of villagers used a water supply system, 15% city and villagers — the sewerage.
Medical researches are conducted in Ying-those pediatrics and hygiene of children of Paraguay, founded in 1928,
and National by in-those parasitology (it is founded in 1963).
In 1975 in the country there were 2229 doctors (8,4 on 10 000 zhit.), 679 dentists, 231 druggists, 278 nurses, 358 midwifes, 150 honeys-sisters-midwifes, 896 assistants to the nurse and 947 auxiliary nurses, apprx. 300 other medical specialists.
In 1974 in the country 1 medical school for training of doctors (term of training of 6 years), 1 dental surgery school (term of training of 5 years),
2 sisterly schools and other medical educational institutions functioned.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 140, M., WHO, 1977.
E. V. Galakhov.