From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PARACHUTING — one of types of airsport, in Krom parachute jumps from aircraft are made.

The program of competitions in P. of page includes single and group jumps on the accuracy of a landing, performance of a complex of acrobatic figures («star», «rhombus») and group jumps with creation of figures in free fall. The competitions and in parachute all-round including in addition to parachute jumps, firing from a small-caliber sports rifle, swimming and a cross-country are held. The item of page develops courage, courage, will power, determination, speed of reaction, an eye estimation, accurate coordination of movements.

Training of athletes-parachutists is carried out in aero clubs, parachute sections at committees of DOSAAF.

By direct preparation for parachute jump, and also at the time of separation from the aircraft the certain psychological tension which is shown in increase in level of function of century of N of page is noted: increase of breath, pulse, increase in the ABP, a hyperglycemia, and also generally speech and motive excitement or in a nek-swarm of block. Similar reactions are more expressed at the beginning parachutists, in much smaller degree — at experienced. Increase in minute volume of breath up to 12 l/min and decrease in partial pressure of alveolar CO is noted 2 to 30,6 mm of mercury. (at rest respectively — 6 — 9 l/min and 39 mm of mercury.). Aboard at the beginning parachutists these indicators can change respectively to 17l \mines and 27 mm of mercury. In process of acquisition of experience reaction of external respiration at most of parachutists during jumps and at rest almost identical.

Energy expenditure during parachute jump makes 1,4 kcal/min., however before a jump increase them to 2,8 kcal is observed! min. The maximum energy expenditure is recorded after a landing and makes 4,5 kcal/min., however in 10 min. this indicator decreases to 2,5 kcal/min., and in 30 min. to 0,3 kcal/min.

During parachute jump of change fiziol, functions same, as at a stressful state; at the time of separation from the airplane and in free fall pulse rate can reach 190 beats/min, maximum the ABP — 150 — 160 mm of mercury. Regardless of a sports experience at most of parachutists during jumps fervescence to 37,4 °, in rare instances to 38 ° is observed, however all these changes are reversible and have passing character.

Medical control for athletes consists of survey of the beginning parachutists medical and flight commission (see), periodic medical examinations, surveys before performance of jumps, daily medical and pedagogical observations (see. Medical control ).

In addition to the general requirements to the state of health, special attention is paid on a psychological condition, a condition of a musculoskeletal system, an ear, throat, nose, organs of sight. Contraindications to P.'s occupation of page correspond to contraindications to sports activities in general; the persons which did not reach 16 years are not allowed. Sportswomen-pas-rashyutistkam parachute jumps in any period of pregnancy are categorically contraindicated.

Before parachute jump special attention is paid on the general condition, a condition of the psychological sphere, cardiovascular system; before boarding perform outer inspection; special attention is paid on the persons who are carrying out jumps for the first time.

Injuries at parachute jumps arise generally at the time of a landing at violation of the rules of a landing. The lower extremities (area of an ankle joint and shin) are injured more often.

The main actions for prevention of traumatism of parachutists are land training of parachutists, control of a condition of the platform and a circle of a landing (the platform with a diameter not less than 50 m with the soft or plowed soil, in the center the cut in a radius of 10 is filled sand, expanded clay, sea pebble), adjustment of suspension and equipment of the parachutist (a helmet, footwear, overalls, etc.), warm-up before jumps.

Bibliography: Grimak L. P. Psychological training of the parachutist, M., 1971; About r N and to D. T. and d river. Theory and practice of training of parachutists, M., 1969; P au l I to about in V. N., Stepanov V. K. and Traman V. G. About some methods of physiological assessment of emotional tension at parachutists of elementary education, in book: Aviakosmich. medical, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko, t. 1, page 121, M. — Kaluga, 1975; Ruzanova. itr and - m and V. G N. The analysis of parachute injuries and some questions of rehabilitation of victims, in book: Sport, an injury, under the editorship of 3. S. Mironova, page 31, M., 1973; Sherman D. D. Fundamentals of psychophysiology and medical control in parachuting, M., 1976.

V. I. Luchshey, V. G. Traman.