PARABIONTS (Greek para near + bion, biontos living) — two (or more) the animals connected by blood vessels in acute experience or sewing together and an union of their fabrics in chronic experience for the purpose of creation of direct contact of their circulatory and lymphatic systems.
The idea about a possibility of merging in hron, experience of two or several organisms for the first time was stated in 1829 by Morrens, and carried out in 1862 Mr. P. Bert. Practically the method is entered into experimental biology and medicine in 1908 by F. Zauerbrukh and Geyde (M. Heyde). It consists in imposing of a skin and muscular and peritoneal anastomosis at rats. Most podkhodyashch for this operation of a rat: the structure of their body is convenient for connection of side surfaces since preservation of a similar state is possible during a long term (year and more). Rabbits and Guinea pigs are a little suitable for hron, experiences, dogs and cats do not approach because of anatomic features and emotional incompatibility at all. Parabiozirovaniye well works well on embryos of hens and amphibians. For hron, experiences it is recommended to operate genetically compatible animals, a floor can be various, but the age and the sizes of a body shall be relatives. It is not necessary to take in experience of aggressive animals.
In experiences on P. it is possible to study separately nervous and humoral mechanisms fiziol, and patol, processes since at general circulation the nervous system at each partner remains independent. So, a rhabdovirus, reaching c. the N of page only on nerve pathways, causes a disease only in the infected animal, and his partner remains healthy. Infection of one of partners inf. the beginning extending on circulatory and limf, to ways, leads to a disease and the second.
In experiences of L. R. Perelman and M. V. Ikonen (1936) introduction under skin of allergen causes development of a phenomenon of Artyus (see. Artyusa phenomenon ) at not sensibilized rabbit, if the partner sensibilizirovan. Polak (L. Polak, 1975) showed that at a sensitization of skin dinitrobenzene chloride the Guinea pig, sensitive to it, becomes tolerant if it is connected to the tolerant partner, and, on the contrary, the tolerant partner becomes sensitive at a parabiosis with a sensitive animal. In Levin and Sovinsky's experiences (S. Levine, R. Sowinski, 1972) gematol, the disturbances noted at rats at development of the allergic encephalitis caused by cyclophosphamide smooth out at connection of the experimental partner with intact.
In experiences on P. in 1932 by Ya. G. Uzhansky the phenomenon of development of posthemorrhagic anemia in one P. after blood loss at another was open, and V. L. Skuratov and A. V. Osipenko in 1971 showed transfer of a leukopoietic factor from one P. to another.
Antibodies easily pass from immunizirovanny P. to intact. So, according to nek-ry researchers, after immunization of one of P. erythrocytes of a ram of an antibody found also in the partner and remain in his organism within 3 weeks after its separation from the immunizirovanny partner. According to Zolla and Naor (S. Zolla, D. Naor, 1974), the mouse, tolerant to human gamma-globulin, gains ability to produce it after connection with a normal mouse.
I. M. Neumann and E. M. Timofeev was shown that at the rats deprived of a pancreas and connected to normal rats the phenomena of heavy diabetes are not eliminated. According to Koulmen and Hammel (D. L. Coleman, To. P. Hummel, 1969), parabiontny connection of lines of mice with genetically caused diabetes with normal mice caused only insignificant weakening of symptoms of diabetes.
The amyloidosis which is experimentally created at mice was not transferred to the intact parabiontny partner. On animals parabionts widely studied the mechanism of effect of sex and other hormones, and also a role of humoral factors at defeat of an organism ionizing radiation.
See also Cross circulation .
Bibliography: Caps I. V. O humoral influences of a spleen, L., 1938; Neumann I. M. and Timofeeva E. M. Experimental diabetes at parabiotic animals, Arkh. stalemate. annate, and stalemate. fiziol., t. 1, No. 2, page 20, 1935; Perelman L. R. A chronic parabiotic anastomosis, its value in normal and pathological physiology, in book: Vopr, teort. medical, under the editorship of D. A. Zhdanov, t. 2, page 57, L., 1949; Uzha certain I. G. A role of destruction of erythrocytes in the mechanism of regeneration of blood, L., 1949; Benner R., Van About u-denaren A. De Ruiter H. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow, VIII. Dependence of potentially circulating memory cells, study with parabiotic mice, Cell Immunol., v. 33, p. 268, 1977; L e-v i n e S. Sowinski R. The role of mononuclear cell deficiency in the production of neutrophilic allergic encephalomyelitis, parabiosis experiments, Proc. Soc exp. Biol. (N. Y.), v. 141, p. 664, 1972; N i s b e t N. W. Parabiosis in immunobiology, Transplant. Rev., v. 15, p. 123 1973; Polak L. The transfer of tolerance to DNCB-contact sensitivity in guinea pigs by parabiosis, J. Immunol., v. 114, p. 988, 1975; Sauerbruch F. u. Heyde M. tiber Parabiose kiinstlich-vereinigter Warmbluter, Miinch. med Wschr., S. 153, 1908; Warren S Chute R. N. a. Porter M. W. ’ The effect of parabiosis on life-span of rats stressed by radiation, J. Geront., v. 30, p. 15, 1975.
I. M. Neumann