PAPUA NEW GUINEA — the state in the Southwest part of the Pacific Ocean. Borrows vost. a part of the lake New Guinea with the nearby islands of Bismarck Archipelago, sowing. part of Solomonovy islands, etc. The area is 462,8 thousand km 2 . Population of 3080 thousand people (1979). The capital — Port Moresby (90 thousand zhit., 1978). Ofits. language — English.
The independent state as a part of the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain. The head of state — the queen of Great Britain presented by the governor general to-ry is appointed at the choice of P.'s parliament — N. G. The legislature is carried out by unicameral parliament, executive — National executive council (government).
The most part of the island New Guinea is busy with mountains, to-rye in the center reach height of 3000 — 4000 m, last with 3. for Century. On S. mountains up to 2000 m high abruptly break to Miklukho-Maclay's Coast. Yuzh. the part of the island — the extensive low plain with the numerous rivers, places is strongly boggy.
Climate — equatorial. Plains and slopes of mountains are covered with the wet rainforests passing into mountain meadows.
St. 40% of the population are conducted by subsistence economy: grow up an ambercane, a yam, Taro, batata, bananas, a cassava. The best lands belong to English-Australian and are allocated under plantations of commodity cultures where cultivate coffee, cocoa, a coconut palm tree, rubber-bearing plants. The livestock production and fishery is developed. There are deposits of copper, iron, nickel, lead, manganese, platinum, gold. The leading place in ore mining industry is taken by extraction of copper ore on the lake of Bougainville.
Aboriginals Papuans and Melanesians; the population consists of 700 people speaking 500 languages and dialects (large merits in ethnographic studying of indigenous people belong to the Russian scientist N. N. Miklukho-Maclay). Average population density 7 people on 1 km 2 (1979).
The natural movement of the population in 1976, on ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO (for 1000 the population): birth rate 44, general mortality 15, natural increase 29. Child mortality 90 on 1000 live-born.
In structure of incidence among indigenous people the leading place is taken inf. diseases went. - kish. a path, acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, a leprosy, malaria, and also pneumonia and the diseases connected with insufficient proteinaceous food. Increase in number of the accidents connected by hl is noted. obr. with alcohol intake.
Performs management of health care mines - in health care.
In 1977 in the country 20 BCs of the general profile on 4291 beds (1 private on 131 beds), 1 psychiatric-tsa on 80 beds, 365 centers of health care and the centers of mother and child, St. 1600 first-aid posts functioned.
The extra hospital help appears out-patient departments of BC, in rural districts the centers of health care, the centers of mother and child and first-aid posts. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of P. — N. G. short correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
The low density of the population and limitation of means of communication complicate rendering medical aid to country people.
In the country compulsory vaccination against tuberculosis, whooping cough, tetanus of children to 5 years is established. In 1977 inoculations captured 30% of children. In rural districts of St. 80% of the population it is not provided with high-quality drinking water. Systems of the sewerage of 29 cities dump garbage without cleaning to the rivers (18 cities) and in the sea (11 cities).
In 1977 in the country 200 doctors worked (0,7 on 10 thousand zhit.), 204 medical assistants, 18 stomatologists, 92 dentists, 86 inspectors of health care, 12 druggists, apprx. 1500 nurses, St. 1000 assistants to nurses and St. 1600 workers primary medical - a dignity. the help, rendering medical aid to country people and carrying out a dignity. - a gleam, work.
Bibliography: World Health Statistics Annual, 1978, v. 3, p. 56, 62, Geneva, 1979.
V. V. Fedorov.