PANDER Christiaan Ivanovich (1794 — 1865) — the domestic embryologist, the paleontologist, the anatomist, the biologist evolutionist, the academician of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1823).
Was born in Riga, Derptsko-go un-that studied as medical f-those, continued education in high fur boots of Germany. In 1816 — 1818 worked in the Würzburg where received doctor's degree, and also in many zoological and anatomic museums of Europe. In 1819 returned to Derpt. In 1821 — 1827 worked in St. Petersburg. Since 1821 the graduated in a military academy, since 1823 extraordinary, and in 1826 — 1827 the ordinary academician. Since 1842 served in a scientific part of Mountain department.
H.I.Pander's works formed the basis of development in Russia of embryology and paleontology. Studying germinal development of a chicken and continuing K.-F. Wolf's observations, he tracked formation of three germinal leaves and pointed to a role of each of them in the course of formation of bodies. H. I. Pander's work «Materials to history of development of a chicken in egg» (1817) exerted a great influence on scientific activity of K. M. Ber.
Paleontologic researches X. And. Panther concerned mainly drevnepaleozoysky deposits in the territory of Russia. Its monographs devoted to studying of fossils of fishes of the Silurian and Devonian periods in the territory of the Baltics and vicinities of St. Petersburg are known. One of monographs (about fossil fishes of the Silurian Period) got an award of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences.
The big place in scientific activity of H. I. Pander was occupied by comparative and anatomic researches — comparative osteology. Comparison of skeleton structure of various modern mammals and birds to fossil forms led H. I. Pander to recognition of evolution of fauna as natural process. Ch. Darwin called X. I. Pandera among the predecessors.
X. I. Pander possesses also works on geol. to the description of a number of regions of Russia.
Works: Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hiihnchen im Eie, diss., Wurzburg, 1817; Yergleichende Osteologie, Lfg. 1 — 14, Bonn, 1821 — 1831 (sovm, with d'Alton E.); Beitrage zur Geognosie des russischen Reiches, St. - Petersbourg, 1830; tiber Placodermen des devonischen Systems, St. - Petersbourg, 1830; Monographic der fossilen Fische des silu-rischen Systems des Russisch-Baltischen Gouvernements, St. - Petersbourg, 1856.
Bibliography: Blyakher L. Ya. Istoriya of embryology in Russia (from the middle of XVIII to the middle of the 19th century), page 135, M., 1955; Raykov B. Je. Christiaan Pander is an outstanding biologist evolutionist, M. — JI., 1964.
V. S. Speransky.