From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PANAMA, the Republic of Panama — the state on Isthmus of Panama in Central America. The area is 77,08 thousand km 2 , including a zone of the Panama Canal which was but to the contract of 1903 under jurisdiction of the USA and dividing the country into two parts. According to the agreement of 1977 since October 1, 1979 step-by-step transfer of a zone of the canal Panama began. Population of 1881,4 thousand people (1979). Capital Panama (452,4 thousand people, 1979). In the administrative relation the country is divided into 9 provinces, to-rye are divided into municipiums. Ofits. language — Spanish.


The item — the republic. The legislature belongs to National assembly of national representatives, executive power is carried out by the government, a cut the president heads.

Panama occupies the narrowest part of Central America; through all territory of the country ridges extend; lowlands (apprx. 1/2 territories of the country) occupy intermountain hollows and sites of coasts. Earthquakes are frequent. The climate is monsoonal, subtropical.

Panama — the agrarian country; about-myshlennvst it is developed poorly. The main export culture — bananas, are exported also cocoa, coffee, a citrus, a sugarcane.

Main population Panamanians. Aboriginals of the country are Indians (kuna, choko, etc.) remained in nebolyn@m quantity. The natural movement of the population on the official, not complete data provided in editions of WHO and the UN, in 1978 (on 1000 inhabitants) составлял®: birth rate 28,2, general mortality 3,9, natural increase 24,3. Child mortality 22,7 on 1000 live-born. In 19/7 g children aged up to 15 years made 43,4% of the population. In 1970 — 1975 average life expectancy made 66,5 years.

The main reasons for death (on 100 000 zhit.) in 1974 there were heart diseases (68,4), accidents (49,0), malignant new growths (43,3), flu and pneumonia (40,6), vascular damages of a brain (37,8), an enterita and others went. - kish. diseases (30,9), other infectious and parasitic diseases (47,2). From total number of the dead in 1974 (9015 people) of children under 5 years was 2619 (29,1%).

In 1977 in the country it is registered: typhoid and paratyphus 23 case, amebiasis 1036, bacillar dysentery 58, tuberculosis 808, measles 2611, inf. hepatitis 1739 (in 1975 — 347), malaria 674, syphilis 1511, a gonococcal infection 3727 (in 1975 — 2525), flu 39 539.

Medical aid is rendered in the public, private and insurance institutions. Mines-in of health care 2 managements are created in 1969, in its structure, the first includes departments of elimination of malaria, medical service, protection of motherhood and the childhood, epidemiology, public health and general technical services, and the second deals with issues of supply, shots and the budget. In 1975 during reorganization of structure of mines-va the department of planning of a family is created. The country is divided into 9 districts of health care (on number of provinces), each of to-rykh is headed by the director; the majority of districts shares on the health sector (all in the country of 18 sectors).

In 1975 in the country would function 61 on 5880 beds (35,3 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 48 state (91% of beds) and 13 private commercial (9% of beds). Among them 30 BCs of the general type (4051 beds), 11 local and rural BCs (307 beds), 18 private clinics (187 beds), 1 pediatric-tsa (476 beds), 1 psychiatric-tsa (859 beds). Extra hospital help would be given in out-patient departments 31, 88 centers and posts of health care, 20 out-patient clinics and 123 other institutions, and also in 23 policlinics of system of social insurance and private medical practitioners (the name and content of work of healthcare institutions of Panama not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).

In 1976 in the country there were 1356 doctors (7,9 doctors on 10 000 zhit.), 237 dentists, apprx. 1200 nurses and 2600 of their assistants, the 154th dignity. inspectors.

In 1974 in the country there was 1 medical school (term of training of 5 years), 1 dental surgery and 2 sisterly schools.

Bibliography: Year-book of world sanitary statistics 1977, t. 3, page 24, 118, Geneva, WHO, 1979; The Fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 137, Geneva, WHO, 1977.

E. V. Galakhov.