PALMITIC ACID — hexadecanoic acid, C 15 H 31 COOH, the higher fatty saturated acid, is a part of natural lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids) — the main components of biological membranes, substantially defining their properties. Along with others fatty acids (see) P. to. is one of energy sources for animal organisms (beta oxidation fat to - t). The item to. — replaceable fat to - that, it is synthesized by all animal organisms. In P.'s industry to. together with others fat to-tami it is used for production of soap; in mix with stearin to - that P. to. in the form of so-called stearin goes for production of candles. Nek-ry ethers P. to. apply during the receiving synthetic detergents (see), preparation of paints and so forth.
High content of P. to. it is characteristic of natural oils (cotton, coconut, cocoa oils and palm), spermaceti and lard. At mammals P.'s synthesis to. occurs in a liver from malonil-KOA.
Pier. the weight (weight) of P. to. 256,42, t pl 63,10, relative density 0,8534, well the rastvorima in organic solvents (ether, chloroform), is water-insoluble. The cleared P. to. represents white crystals. It has properties carboxylic to - t: forms esters, amides, anhydrides, acid halides, etc. In glycerides P. to. replaces primary and (or) secondary hydroxylic» groups glycerin (see). Salts P. to. are soaps (see). The item to. receive from spermaceti, and after hydrolytic decomposition of fat separate from others fat to - t at first fractional crystallization from acetone or methanol, and then differential distillation. In a lab. conditions the most effective method of cleaning of P. to. — the adsorptive chromatography (see). Qualitative and quantitative test of P. to. carry out by means of a gas liquid chromatography.
Bibliography: Lenindzher A. Biochemistry, the lane with English, M., 1976; T yu t yu N of N and — to about in B. of H. Chemistry of fats, M., 1966.
N. V. Prokazova.