PAKISTAN, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan — the state in the Southern Asia, in the north of the peninsula of Hindustan. The area is 803,9 thousand km 2 . Population of 79,8 million people (1979). The capital — Islamabad (the St. 250 thousand zhit., 1979). The largest cities — Karachi (5,2 million zhit., 1978), Lahore (2,6 million zhit., 1978). In the administrative relation the country is divided into 4 provinces (Balochistan, Punjab, Sind, the Northwest boundary province), the federal capital territory Islamabad and zones of tribes. Ofits. languages — URDU, English.
Pakistan is formed in August, 1947 as a result of the section of the former British colony of India on two dominions — Pakistan and India. In December, 1971 as a result of a victory of the national liberation movement in the territory of the former East Pakistan the People's Republic of Bangladesh was formed (see. Bangladesh ).
According to the constitution adopted in 1973, Pakistan — the federal republic. As a result of a political crisis in July, 1977 power was seized by military authorities. It was suspended separate articles of the constitution, the parliament is dismissed, activity of labor unions is limited, approach to the civil rights of workers began. In October, 1979 activity of political parties was prohibited, operation of laws of the martial law is strengthened. Military regime of Pakistan, under pressing of the USA and China, provided the territory as the base for aggressive actions of the Afghan counter-revolutionaries and other reactionary forces against the Democratic Republic Afghanistan.
On the most part of P. climate of tropical monsoons, on S.-Z. — dry subtropics, continental.
Pakistan — the agrarian country. In 1978 — 1979 the share of agriculture in gross national product made apprx. 30%, the industry — 15,9%. The leading role in economy is occupied by the private capital (falls to its share apprx. 80% of industrial production); 22 monopolistic groups control 70% of the banking and industrial capital. The earth is generally concentrated in hands of landowners and fists. The foodgrain is not enough. In 1978 — 1979 2 million t of wheat were imported. The military expenses making up to 44% of the budget led to deterioration of the situation of workers. In the country of St. 4 million unemployed.
The main population of the country — Panjabis, Pushtuns, Sindhi, beludzh, bragu, etc. St. 74% of the population lives in rural areas.
The natural movement of the population in 1977, on ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO (for 1000 the population): birth rate 44,5, general mortality 14,5, natural increase 30,0. Child mortality 115 on 1000 live-born. In age structure of the population children and teenagers up to 12 years make 44,4%.
The structure of incidence of the population takes the leading place inf. and parasitic diseases. In 1976 the St. 16 thousand cases of a typhoid and paratyphus, St. 100 thousand — bacillar and amoebic dysentery, 77 thousand — tuberculosis, 2258 — acute poliomyelitis was registered. Malaria, trachoma (the main reason for a blindness), helminthic invasions are eurysynusic. Cases of a leprosy are registered. In certain districts of the country flashes of a visceral leushmaniosis are noted. At children widely raspro stranena of a disease went. - kish. path, and also measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, diseases irrational and hyponutrient; considerably deficit of proteins, vitamin A, Riboflavinum, redoxon, iron, iodine influences the level of child mortality. At children and pregnant women anemias are eurysynusic.
The main reasons for death, according to the data published in 1979 were inf. and parasitic diseases (53,54%), malaria (10,44%), anomalies of development, birth trauma and cases of perinatal death of a fruit (7,36%), all forms of tuberculosis (5,55%). Gradually the role of cardiovascular diseases and malignant new growths increases in structure of causes of death.
Heads health service in the country mines - in health care and social security.
In 1977 in Pakistan in various to lay down. institutions there were 39 512 beds (5,2 beds on 10 000 population), from them 28 518 beds in 472-tsakh the general type, 1118 beds in 175 rural-tsakh.
Among specialized hospitals there are 7 maternity homes on 478 beds, 6 infectious on 300 beds, 8 ophthalmologic on 502 beds, 7 tubercular on 2591 beds, 4 psychiatric on 1976 beds, 6 leper colonies on 524 beds and others.
For rendering an ambulatory care in 1975 in the country there were 694 medical centers, in nek-ry there were conditions for hospitalization of patients (to 80 beds). The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of Pakistan not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In the territory of the country there are several balneological resorts with sulfide waters in districts Mang-gopir, Lakhi, Sekhvan, Spintangiri, Ratta-Hotar and chloride waters in the districts Tansa, Iskh, etc.
In 1977 in Pakistan there were 19 922 doctors (2,6 on 10 000 population), 809 stomatologists, 4103 midwifes, 3600 nurses-midwifes, 7498 nurses.
Only one third of doctors in 1975 worked in a national health system, two thirds were busy with a private practice or worked in private to lay down. institutions. Most of medical staff works in the large cities.
In the country treatment by methods of traditional medicine is eurysynusic.
In 1975 588 doctors used methods of Ayurveda. Besides, in the country of St. 33 thousand — the sorcerers treating herbs.
Training of doctors in 1975 was carried out at 14 schools with the term of training of 5 years.
Training of dentists in 1972 was carried out at three schools (the term of training three years), training of nurses — at 25 schools (the term of training 3 years), midwifes — at 44 schools (the term of training one and a half years).
In the country function Tseit-raljmil medical scientific research institute (it is founded in 1957), Ying t of food, Ying t of the main medical sciences at un-those (all in Islamabad), Ying t of oncology (it is founded in 1954) in Karachi, Ying t of hygiene and preventive medicine in Lahore, etc.
Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 211, M., 1980; World Health Statistics Annual, 1977, y. 3, p. 144, 1977; World Health Statistics Annual, 1978, v. 2, p. 43, v. 3, p. 38, 1978.
A. A. Rozov.