PACIFIER it was applied as archeological finds testify to it, in an extreme antiquity. Nipples made of various materials (clay, a stone, metal, guts, leather of animals, etc.) and a different form.
Modern S. is a cap from various plastics or other elastic material. Its form approximately corresponds to a form of a papilla of the breast (fig).
The materials applied to S.'s production shall be chemically stable and not allocate on the contacting Wednesdays (saliva, water, foodstuff, air) of chemical substance (both being their part, and formed during the aging and destruction), to keep initial physical properties (elasticity, smooth, without roughnesses, a surface) at use and boiling. Pages shall be steady against effect of foodstuff (milk, juice, fruit drinks, etc.) and not to change their organoleptic properties (taste, color, a smell, transparency, etc.).
The page is put on a neck of a small bottle with milk or other liquid. Through S. the child is not recommended to give different types of a feeding up (porridges, soups, broths, etc.), feed with them only from a spoon (see. Feeding of children ).
In S. puncture two-three small openings with the heated end of a sewing needle. Contents of a small bottle shall follow with a speed about 60 drops a minute and get into a stomach of the child in the small portions. The child shall drink through S. the portion of milk or mix put to it in 15 — 20 min. During the feeding from a small bottle it is necessary to watch that contents filled it S. and a neck of a small bottle in order to avoid hit of air in a stomach and the subsequent vomiting (see. Aerophagia ).
Except S. used during the feeding the pacifier representing the small S. without opening attached to a plastic disk with a ring that does not allow the child to involve all S. in a mouth is eurysynusic. Suction of pacifiers irritates a mucous membrane of a mouth, breaks secretion of a stomach, tires the child, can promote formation of wrong bite (see) therefore their use is undesirable. At children with a hyperexcitability use of a pacifier is justified since at suction there is a braking of a cerebral cortex, but at the same time on the basis of an instinctive reflex of suction the conditioned reflex is developed, the habit is got, from a cut in the subsequent it is difficult to disaccustom the child.
It is necessary to contain S. in big purity: after each use it needs to be washed out warm water and to boil. Store S. in a zykryty vessel.
V. P. Bisyarina.