From Big Medical Encyclopedia

PACHYCARPINUM (Pachycarpinum) — ganglioblokiruyushchy means; the alkaloid emitted from a Sophora tolstoplodny (Sophora pachycarpa C. A. M.) this. bean (Leguminosae). Contains also in other plants of this family (Thermopsis lan-ceolata R. Br., Cytisus caucasicus Grossh., Sophora Massage to vii Fedtsch., etc.). The item — almost water thick oil which is quickly darkening and oxidized on air. Gives a number of well crystallizing salts.

On a chemical structure of P. corresponds to alkaloid to sparteine. Both alkaloids are stereoisomers. Sparteine rotates the plane of polarization to the left, P. — to the right. [a] D for sparteine (without solvent) — 5,4 °, for Item +5,4 ° and respectively — 16,42 ° and +16,3 ° in spirit solution. Thus, P. can be considered as d-sparteine.

In the medical purposes apply Pachycarpinum hydroiodide (Pachycarpini hydroiodidum, synonym: Pachycarpinum hydroiodicum, d-sparteine hydroiodide; GFH, joint venture. B); With 15 H 26 N 2 - HI:

White crystal powder of bitter taste, readily soluble in water (1: 30), difficult ether-soluble and acetone; pier. weight (weight) 362,30, t ° pl 233 — 236 °; specific rotation (7% solution in 95% alcohol) from +8,6 to +9,6 °. Solutions for injections will sterilize at t ° 100 ° within 30 min.

P. has ganglioblokiruyushchy effect on vegetative a ganglion and the stimulating influence on muscles of a uterus. Does not cause oppression of carrying out excitement in neuromuscular synapses of P.; after its introduction strengthening of reductions of skeletal muscles at electric stimulation of a motor nerve is observed (experiences on cats with irritation of a sciatic nerve and registration of reductions of a gastrocnemius muscle). Under the influence of P. at experimental animals strengthening of reductions and increase in a tone of muscles of a uterus is noted. Especially strongly P. affects a uterus of pregnant animals.

Essential chemical feature of P. in comparison with other ganglioblokiruyushchy means (petrolhexonium, Pentaminum) is absence at this alkaloid of quarternary nitrogen atoms (onium groups). In this regard P., like other basic nitriles, is easily soaked up at intake and renders the expressed effect at peroral introduction.

Hydroiodide P. is applied to expansion of blood vessels at hypertensive crises, spasms of peripheral vessels (an endarteritis, the alternating lameness, etc.). The positive effect of action of P. is noted also at vegetative ganglionites, muscular dystrophy, arrhythmias of heart. In obstetric practice of P. use as parturifacient means at weakness of labor pains, an early bursting of waters, weakness of attempts. The item can be applied independently and in combination with other parturifacient means. In quality ro to uskoryayushche go P.'s means has advantage before Pituitrinum since does not cause increase in the ABP. In a puerperal period of P. it can be used for reduction of blood loss.

Appoint The item inside, under skin or intramusculary. A single dose for intake 0,05 — 0,1 — 0,15 g. At an endarteritis, muscular dystrophy, etc. appoint usually 0,05 — 0,1 g 2 — 3 times a day during 3 — 6 weeks. If necessary conduct repeated courses (2 — 3 courses) of bucketed 2 — 3 months. For stimulation of patrimonial activity of P. appoint under skin or intramusculary 2 — 4 ml of 3% of solution, is more rare inside on 0,1 — 0,15 g on reception or enter in the form of rectal candles on 0,1 g

the Highest doses of P. for adults inside: one-time 0,2 g, daily 0,6 g; under skin: one-time 0,15 g (5 ml of 3% of solution), daily 0,45 g (15 ml of 3% of solution),

Item. it is contraindicated at abnormal liver functions and kidneys, stenocardia, the expressed disturbances of cordial activity. In connection with the stimulating influence on a uterus P.'s use is contraindicated also at pregnancy. P.'s issue shall be made only according to the recipe of the doctor. It is necessary to consider a possibility of accidental poisonings at P.'s reception in the raised doses as abortal means.

First aid at poisonings P.: a gastric lavage a suspension of active coal with water, active coal inside, inhalation of oxygen, isotonic solution of sodium chloride or glucose intravenously, the inhalation of oxygen, means stimulating cardiovascular system, rest.

Forms of release: tablets on 0,1 g; ampoules on 2 dl of 3% of solution; candles» P. Sokhranyayut containing 0,1 g: powder in well corked banks of orange glass, tablet and ampoule — in the place protected from light.

See also Ganglioblokiruyushchy means .

Pachycarpinum in the medicolegal relation

In court. - medical practice acute poisonings of P., it is frequent with a lethal outcome, meet at the women accepting this drug for the purpose of abortion more often. For diagnosis of acute poisonings the following symptoms have expert value: the general weakness, dryness in a mouth, nausea, vomiting, a fever, a cold snap of extremities, the complicated breath, dizziness, subfebrile temperature, a leukocytosis to 14 000 — 18 000, acceleration of ROE (to 20 — 30 mm an hour), pain in eyeglobes, tachycardia, arrhythmic and threadlike pulse, fibrillation of heart, a hearing disorder, sight, a condition of «intoxication», a loss of consciousness, spasms.

At court. - a medical research of a corpse find: plentiful livors mortis, cyanosis of skin and puffiness of the person, hemorrhage under a conjunctiva of an eye, a plethora of internals, dark liquid blood in heart and large vessels, hemorrhages under an epicardium, a pleura of lungs, a renal capsule, a mucous membrane of a renal pelvis, a bladder, a stomach and other internals, moderate wet brain and lungs. At gistol, a research of internals small hemorrhages, a plethora, sites of a necrosis in a brain, a fluid lungs and a brain, sometimes parenchymatous dystrophy of internals come to light.

Major importance for diagnosis of poisoning of P. data of the anamnesis, data on circumstances of death and result have court. - chemical researches of urine, rinsing waters, kidneys, a stomach, a brain, a liver and intestines. In some cases find tablets and powder P in contents of a stomach and rinsing waters. Urine and rinsing waters are the most valuable objects of a research for court. - chemical detection of the Item. It can be open also in tissues of a kidney, stomach, brain, liver and intestines. At court. - a chemical research P.'s extraction from cadaveric material is made by the acidified water or the acidified alcohol. For P.'s detection paper chromatography is widely used (see. Chromatography ). Microcrystallic reactions with reactants are offered (complex rhodonite of cobalt, a mednoyodidny complex and solution picric to - you).

Bibliography: Budrin V.P. Poisoning with Pachycarpinum, Court. - medical examination, t. 4, KA 1, page 53, 1961; Dvorina V. M. Acute poisonings with Pachycarpinum, in book: Acute poisonings, Diagnosis, clinic and treatment, under the editorship of I. I. Shimangko, page 157, M., 1970; Denisenko of P. P. Gangliolitiki, JI., 1959; Zimnu-h about in V. V. New microcrystallic reactions to Pachycarpinum, Court. - medical examination, t. 6, No. 2, page 46, 1963; Kartashova JI. X. and To about N yu sh to about V. S. Ekstraktsionno-spektrofotometricheskoye definition by Pachycarpinum, in the same place, t. And, JsTs 2, page 37, 1968; Mashkovsky M. D. and Rabkina JI. E. Pharmacological properties of alkaloid of Pachycarpinum, Pharm, and toksikol., t. 15, No. 2, page 23, 1952; Naumov V. N. To a question of poisoning with Pachycarpinum, in book: Aktualn, vopr. court. medical, under the editorship of Ya. S. Smusin, page 205, JI., 1970; Harkevich D. A. Ganglionic means, M., 1962; Hotimskayam. F. Otravleniye Pachycarpinum, in book: Aktualn. vopr. court. medical and stalemate. annate., under the editorship of A. A. Lukash, etc., page 203, Tallinn, 1970.

M. D. Mashkovsky; K. I. Hizhnyakova (court.).