OZONE — one of two known molecular forms of allotropic modifications of oxygen (O 3 ), having high reactivity; ozone is extremely toxic (the I class of danger). At the increased concentration in air O. affects the person otravlyayushche, reduces body resistance of the person to bacterial infections since oxidizes lysozyme (see), contained in slime of respiratory tracts. Being sulphhydryl poison, O. quickly inactivates S i I-enzymes, breaking thereby many biochemical, processes, including and oxidizing. From amino acids O. most quickly oxidizes sulfur-containing and aromatic amino acids (cysteine, tyrosine, etc.). Believe also that toxic action of O. is caused by education of free radicals, release from fabrics of adrenaline, noradrenaline and bradikinin. Apparently, does not possess mutagen action of O. O.'s toxicity sharply increases at simultaneous impact on an organism of nitric oxides, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and nek-ry other connections.
In natural concentration (see. Atmosphere ) The lake, as well as nek-ry aeroions (ions of the gases which are a part of free air), has a promoting effect on a human body — increases resistance to cold, to effect of toxicants, hypoxias, causes increase in a hemoglobin content and erythrocytes in blood, increases phagocytal activity of leukocytes and a caption of a complement of blood serum, increases the immunobiological potential of an organism. Nontoxic concentration of O. positively work and on respiratory function — the delay time of breath considerably raises, breath becomes more rare, the vital capacity of lungs and their maximal ventilation increases. Under the influence of ABP ozone it decreases or normalized, as well as at long stay in the fresh air.
Being one of the strongest oxidizers, O. destroys bad, putrefactive smells, use of ozonizers for improvement and deodorization of air in inhabited and production rooms is based on this property (see. the Deodorizing means ). The lake is used for disinfecting of drinking water and drain waters (see. Ozonization of water ), and also for neutralization of the waste of the chemical industry containing toxic agents (e.g., cyanides).
O.'s maintenance in the atmosphere as much as possible at the height of 20 — 25 km (to 0,001%), especially in the field of poles. This layer of the atmosphere of Earth has extremely important biol, value since O. absorbs the short-wave ultraviolet radiation, pernicious for live organisms. The general maintenance of O. in the atmosphere makes 3 — 4 billion tons.
The lake represents gas, in all aggregate states has blue diets, t ° kip — 112 °, t ° pl — 192,7 °, it is not steady and can decay with explosion, turning into molecular oxygen about m. Polymorphism in chemistry). In small concentration of O. has a characteristic smell of freshness. O.'s solubility in water apprx. 1 g/l (at 25 °), much better it is dissolved in perchloromethane both another chlorinated and fluohydrocarbons.
O. on reaction of O is formed 2 + O + M -> O 3 + M, where M — the molecule which is carrying away energy. The lake is formed in all physical. and chemical processes, as a result to-rykh free atoms turn out oxygen (see), i.e. at electric discharges in oxygen of a pla in air (e.g., at a strong thunder-storm), during the heating of oxygen to high temperatures, in the atmosphere under the influence of solar radiation.
Chemical activity of O. differs from chemical activity of oxygen markedly and is explained by ease of return of one oxygen atom: O 3 + X —> O 2 +XO, where X — a molecule of any substance. On reaction of O 3 + 2KI + H 2 SO 4 -> O 2 + I 2 + H 2 O + K 2 SO 4 the method of definition of O. by amount of the emitted iodine is based. At O.'s use in chemical synthesis it is necessary to remember that O. quickly destroys rubber therefore it cannot be passed on rubber tubes.
O.'s Concentration is equal in free air to 0,005 — 0,02 mg/m 3 . High concentration of ozone (to 1 — 2 mg/m 3 ) are created at a photochemical smog as a result of action of solar radiation on the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons coming to the atmosphere with exit gases of cars and other industrial emissions. High concentration of O. are created also in a working zone of production rooms in a number of industries — by O.'s production, during the welding works, in production nitric to - you, in production of hydrogen peroxide in the electrochemical way, at electrolysis and at ozonization of water, in electrochemical and spectral laboratories, about high-voltage installations, in X-ray departments, during the use of powerful gamma irradiators and particle accelerators. At high concentration of O. possesses obviously expressed toxic action, causes feeling of fatigue, irritability, asthenoneurotic states, a headache. At O.'s concentration it is higher than 0,5 mg/m 3 in air the unpleasant pungent smell is felt, the irritation of a conjunctiva and mucous membranes of respiratory tracts is noted, suffocating cough sometimes with heavy astmoydny attacks quite often develops. There can be also a feeling of constraint in breasts, dizziness, decrease in the ABP, a trichangiectasia. The threshold of perception of a smell of O. makes 0,015 — 0,2 mg/m 3 , while the irritation of a conjunctiva and a mucous membrane of respiratory tracts is observed at O.'s concentration of 0,2 — 1 mg/m 3 . At short-term inhalation of O. in concentration of 2 — 20 mg/m 3 there is cough, a headache, dizziness, increase of pulse, sometimes sharp weakness of cordial activity, long retrosternal pains. At more long inhalation of O. the fluid lungs appears. Physical. loading at O.'s influence strengthens its toxic effect.
At acute poisonings of O. it is necessary to take out immediately the victim on fresh air, to provide it absolute rest, heat (hot-water bottles), inhalations of the oxygen moistened to 75 — 80% and 2% of solution of hydrosodium carbonate, intravenously — 20 ml of 40% of solution of glucose and 10 ml of 10% of solution of Calcium chloratum are shown. At astmoidny attacks — atropine, ephedrine, according to indications — cardiacs. There are data that introduction biol, antioxidant — vitamin E has positive effect. In an experiment the protective effect is rendered by nek-ry sulfur-containing connections — glutathione, the BALL, sodium thiosulphate, etc. Hron, O.'s action on the person authentically is not studied.
Maximum allowable concentrations of O. make 0,1 mg/m for a working zone of production rooms 3 , the maximum one-time concentration of O. in free air of the inhabited places of 0,16 mg/m 3 and average daily 0,03 mg/m 3 . Norm of ozonization for the conditioned air of 0,01 — 0,02 mg/m 3 .
Measures of the prevention. During the work in the atmosphere containing O. in the concentration exceeding norm it is necessary to use the filtering gas mask with an absorber from KI and natroncalc, protective clothes. On production and in medical institutions sealing of the capital equipment (electrolysis bathtubs, quartz devices, etc.) and ventilation of rooms is obligatory. During the work with xenon lamps it is necessary to equip drafts directly at lamps, as much as possible to reduce time of stay of personnel in cabins. Medical examinations periodic (once a year) (with a X-ray analysis of lungs) O. working in production or on the productions connected with its allocation are carried out.
Definition in air O. is based on its reaction about K I, amount of the formed free iodine define by a muriatic dimethyl-n-phenylenediamine. Test-sensitivity — 0,4 mkg in test.
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and I. D. Gadaskina, t. 3, page 16, L., 1977; D m and t r and ev M. T., M and N x A. A. and 3 and and l at e in and A. P. Hygienic problem of an ozonosphere and way of its decision, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 8, page 44, 1978, bibliogr.; M and r z e e in A. N. and the Jabot t and N with to y V. M. Utility hygiene, page 216, M., 1979; Maximum allowable concentrations of harmful substances in air and water, under the editorship of Yu. A. Krotov, page 15, L., 1975; P sh e of e of c to and y S. Ya. and Dmitriyev M. T. Radiation physical and chemical processes in the air environment, M., 1978; Razumovsky S. D. and Zaikov G. E. Ozon and his reactions with organic compounds (kinetics and the mechanism), M., 1974; The Guide to hygiene of free air, under the editorship of. K. A. Bushtuyeva, M., 1976; Bates D. Y. Physiological effects on man of air pollutants, Fed. Proc., v. 33, p. 2133, 1974; Jones R. A. a. o. Effect of long-term continuous inhalation of ozone on experimental animals, Toxicol, appl. Pharmacol., v. 17, p. 189, 1970, bibliogr.; L e h F. Ozone, properties, toxicity, and applications, J. chem. Educ., v. 5, 50, 404, 1973.
A. V. Babkov, M. T. Dmitriyev, V. H. Pavlov.