OVSYANNIKOV Philip Vasilyevich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

OVSYANNIKOV Philip Vasilyevich (1827 — 1906) — the domestic physiologist and the histologist, the academician of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences.

OVSYANNIKOV Philip Vasilyevich

In 1853 ended medical f-t of Yuryevsky (Derptsky) un-that. Worked as the intern of the 2nd overland hospital in St. Petersburg (1854 — 1856).

In 1858 — 1862 professor Kazan, and in 1863 — 1892. St. Petersburg high fur boots. F. V. OVSYANNIKOV - one of founders of comparative histology and comparative physiology of a nervous system in Russia. On its initiative laboratories at the Kazan and St. Petersburg high fur boots were created fiziol, in 1864 — the physiological laboratory of Academy of Sciences which laid the foundation for experimental physiology in academic institutions.

F. V. Ovsyannikov possesses basic researches on physiology and morphology of a nervous system, identification of its role in regulation of functions of an organism. He opened existence of vasomotor centers in a myelencephalon (1871), together with S. I. Chiryev established antagonism fiziol, influences of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves on activity of bodies and fabrics (1873). It described ways of an innervation submaxillary (1873) and parotid (1880) sialadens, ability of a parotid gland to emit saliva in response to mechanical irritation of a mucous membrane of a stomach, small bowels or the central end of the item splanchnicus major is established.

It described neurofibrilla (1854), a structure (five-layer) of a cerebral cortex of the person (1879) and synoptic bonds of shoots of nervous cells in it. The opinion is expressed to them that the nervous cells having the identical form and a structure can perform various functions. F. V. Ovsyannikov executed also a series of works on parasitology (development of Polypodium hydritorme, Trichinella, etc.).

F. V. Ovsyannikov is a coauthor of the first domestic two-volume guide to histology (1887 — 1888).

It was an editor of the Bulletin of Natural Sciences magazine (1890 — 1893). F. V. Ovsyannikov, being the progressive scientist and the patriot, actively opposed the administrative and police measures spread by the imperial government at universities and in Academy of Sciences.

In laboratory F. V. Ovsyannikova there began the scientific activity I. P. Pavlov and other outstanding domestic scientists.

Works: Chosen works, M., 1955.

Bibliography: Koshtoyants X. C. Sketches on stories of physiology in Russia, page 186, etc., M. — L., 1946; Kuzmin M. K. Academician F. V. Ovsyannikov, M., 1963; Lange K. A. Development and the organization of physiological science in the USSR, page 24, L., 1978.

M. K. Kuzmin.