From Big Medical Encyclopedia

OSTERKHNUT Uintrop (Osterhout Winthrop John Vanleuven, 1871 — 1964) — the American physiologist, the cytologist, the botanist; honorary member of National academy of Sciences of the USA, German academy of Sciences (Halle).

Ended in 1893. Brownian un-t (USA). In 1895 — 1896 studied in Bonn un-those (Germany), then worked in Californian un-those. Since 1913 professional. Harvard un-that; from 1925 to 1939 worked in Rock Feller in-those medical researches, and then in laboratory of biology of the sea (. Woods-hall).

Studied influence of salt solutions on fiziol, processes in cells, investigated a role of sodium salts, potassium, calcium in processes of cell activity. One of the first (1936) used a glass pipette for registration of potential difference of cells of seaweed of Valonia, Nitella, Halicystis, etc. Investigating permeability of plant cells for ions at change physical. - chemical conditions (ph, temperature, composition of salt in solution and salt content), the method of conductivity applied. Thanks to U. Osterkhaut's works and it sotr. the fresh-water filamentous alga of Nitella became traditional model for studying of processes of excitement and carrying out, and use of a glass micropipet gained further development in microelectrode technics of a research in physiology. U. Osterkhaut - honourable doctor Garvardsky (1925) and the Californian (1926) high fur boots, the honorary member American physiological, philosophical and botanical about-in, Botanical about-va Edinburgh (Great Britain).

Works: Experiments with plants, N. Y. 1905;;; Injury, recovery, and death, in relation to conductivity and permeability, Philadelphia 1922; Nature of life, 1924; Some fundamental problems of cellular physiology, New Haven a. o., 1927.

Bibliography: World biography, v. 2, p 3595 N. Y. 11948;;; World who’s who in science, ed. by rG. Allen, p. 1292, Chicago, 1968.

V. P. Shmelyov.