From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EYTANAZYYa (euthanasia; Greek eu is good + thanatos death; a synonym an eutanaziya) — nakhmerenny acceleration of approach of death incurably sick for the purpose of the termination of his sufferings.

The term «orthothanasia» is offered in 16 century by the English philosopher F. Bacon for designation by the «easy», not followed agony, painless death.

The question of admissibility of use of pharmacological or other means for acceleration of approach of death of the patient who is, according to the doctor (doctors), in a remediless state and the suffering anguish, i.e. a frame of the doctor on implementation of an orthothanasia, is discussed in foreign literature. Domestic and most of foreign physicians, and also lawyers categorically deny the right of the doctor on E., including it the act to deeply inhuman, contradicting debts of the doctor and a medical oath. The main medical debt is fight against the help of all available means for rescue of life of the patient up to approach of death (see Death). In the USSR the orthothanasia is considered as a crime.

Besides, development of medicine disproves the arguments given by supporters of competency of an orthothanasia. In particular, many diseases and damages which until recently were considered incurable in a crust, time in some cases recover, and ideas of «hopelessness» of an outcome of these or those diseases change according to progress of medicine. Assessment of a condition of the patient and the forecast of a disease of a time are very difficult and disputable. It is caused by lack of reliable criteria, to-rye would allow to characterize, consider and estimate objectively all complex of the factors influencing an outcome of a disease including individual physiological opportunities of an organism. In each case hopelessness of a condition of the patient is defined by the doctor on the basis of own knowledge and experience, i.e. is subjective that is fraught with a possibility of a mistake. Permission of use E. could become an indirect psychological brake of search of new, more effective remedies of the help to the patient who is in extremely serious or terminal state of the funds allocated, first of all, for rescue of his life.

Permission of an orthothanasia is fraught with opportunities of criminal acts. So, e.g., in fascist Germany iod the type of an orthothanasia carried out the mass extermination of political opponents of the fascist mode brought to the level of state policy, representatives of «the lowest races», mentally and somatic seriously ill patients, old men and disabled people, i.e. destruction of people for political, racist and economic reasons. The International military court fairly qualified these actions as a crime against humanity.

With a question of admissibility E. to a certain extent the problem of a possibility of the termination of artificial maintenance of basic processes of life activity (breath and blood circulation) at so-called death of a brain adjoins (see). This problem is far from the final permission.