From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ORTHOPTICS (grech, orthos of a straight line, correct + optics) — system of exercises on recovery of solid vision in complex treatment of a concomitant strabismus. O.'s emergence is connected with a name of Uort (S. Worth), to-ry in 1905 offered amblioskop — a prototype of modern devices for orthoptic exercises. These devices are based on the principle of division of fields of vision of both eyes that allows to show visual objects separately for each eye. The purpose O. — to eliminate a phenomenon of suppression of visual impressions in the mowing eye, to recruit him in the visual act and to induce both eyes to joint activity. Orthoptic exercises will see both at conservative treatment of a concomitant strabismus, and at its operational treatment (to operation of elimination of squint). They are shown at visual acuity 0,4 and above and are recommended to children at the age of 4 — 5 years and are more senior.

Fig. 1. Synoptophore (orthoptic device): 1 — the basis with the control panel; 2 — optical heads; 3 — handles of turn of optical heads; 4 — visual objects; 5 — a head rest.
Fig. 2. Bivizotrener — the device for orthoptic exercises of eyes: 1 — a bracket with eyepieces; 2 — the horizontal panel for fixing of drawing paper; 3 — the vertical panel for fixing of the test.

The main orthoptic device is the synoptophore. In this device (fig. 1) visual objects can be put under various corner that allows to carry out exercises and in the presence of a squint angle. By means of other devices (heyroskop, the stereoscope with a mirror, a divider of fields of vision) orthoptic exercises can be carried out only at the symmetric position of eyes reached as a result of constant glasses wearing or operation. Orthoptic exercises should be begun with larger, horizontally located objects on less bright background, and then to use vertically located objects of the smaller size on brighter background.

If at a research on a synoptophore of the patient sees only one object or notes disappearance of one of objects during movement of optical heads, then appoint exercises, an essence to-rykh consists in bystry alternate or simultaneous irritation of the central poles of a retina of both eyes for the purpose of recovery of their joint activity. For this purpose it is possible to use also a stereoscope with a mirror and a bivizotrener (fig. 2). In the presence at the patient of ability to merge fovealny images of objects (i.e. to combine them in the central pole of macular area of a retina) on a synoptophore carry out the exercises developing fusional reserves (see. Fuziya ).

See also Squint .

Bibliography: Avetisov E. S. Concomitant strabismus, M., 1977, bibliogr.; To r ii g e r K. Physiologische und methodische Grundlagen der Pleoptik und Orthoptik, Lpz., 1972.

E. S. Avetisov.