From Big Medical Encyclopedia

OPHTHALMOLOGY (grech, ophthalmos of eyes + logos the doctrine) — the field of medicine, the cut is a subject of studying an organ of sight normal and pathologies. The main sections O. — anatomy and histology of an organ of sight, physiology of visual system and its ontogenesis, a refraction of an eye, its development and prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of an eye and its appendages, the organization of the ophthalmologic help.


the First data on diseases of an eye and their treatment belong to an extreme antiquity. It was the period when the practical advice on treatment of injuries and diseases of an eye proceeding from purely external observation prevailed. Bottles from alabaster and ivory from the remains of medicines for eyes are found in the Egyptian tombs. Knowledge of ancient Egyptians of area O. are known from medical papyruses, in them a number of eye diseases is described. High development was reached by O. in Ancient India (4 — 2 centuries BC), Old Indian doctors allocated 76 eye diseases. From methods of their treatment the description of operation of a nisdavleniye (reclination) of a crystalline lens at a cataract is of the greatest interest. At the same time ideas of an eye and its function were very primitive. So, body of feeling of light the crystalline lens admitted, in Krom the eternal flame burns. Ancient Greek doctors expanded ideas of symptomatology of diseases of an organ of sight. During the Hellenistic period there were first ideas of geometrical optics (Euclid, Ptolemaeus), however they were not used by doctors what, in particular, A. Tsels and K. Galen's works testify to, in to-rykh more fully in comparison with antique authors data on symptomatology and treatment of eye diseases are described. Ibn-al-Haysam (965 — 1039) in 1010 made model of a crystalline lens — the first biconvex lens, to-ruyu suggested to use during the reading to people of old age. He the first explained refraction of beams in environments of an eye, visions; still the names given them to separate parts of an eye remained (a crystalline lens, a cornea, a vitreous, etc.). Modern to it O. systematized materials and Ibn-Xing in «A canon of medical science» generalized. Grossetest (R. Grassetest, apprx. 1168 — 1253) by practical consideration checked a refraction of lenses, along with Ibn-al-Haysamom attribute it implementation in practice of lenses for correction of sight. At the end of 13 century the first appeared points (see). The homeland they are considered Italy where at this time the production technology of colorless transparent glass was developed. However the scientific foundation for optical correction of sight was laid only at the beginning of 17 century by J. Kepler's works, to-ry for the first time offered the correct explanation of the physical nature of the visual act and effect of optical glasses. In April 1747 Mr. J. Daviel made the first operation of extraction of a cataract, having opened thereby the new page in surgery of an eye.

The first original work on ophthalmology in Russia was published in 1728; in it D. Bernoulli offered the method of a research of a field of vision for the purpose of identification of a blind spot and made attempt to mathematically calculate its sizes. About a quarter of the century later the great Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov stated the ternary theory of color sensation, in a cut the foundation of modern ideas of color was laid sight (see).

In 19 century the foundation fiziol, optics was laid. English doctor and scientist Jung (T. Young, 1773 — 1829) explained the mechanism of accommodation of an eye and formulated the first ternary theory of color sight.

From the middle of 19 century on the basis of achievements himshch and physics, histology and physiology bystry rise in development of the Lake begins. The big merit in justification of the theory of an oftalmoskopiya and in practical permission of a research problem of an eyeground belongs to G. Helmholtz, to-ry in 1851 created an eye mirror — the first ophtalmoscope (see. Oftalmoskopiya ). G. Helmholtz's opening marked approach of a new stage in development by O. Tolko after that diagnosis of the major intraocular diseases became objective. In G. Helmholtz's works the mechanism of accommodation and a role of a crystalline lens found an explanation in implementation of this important adaptive act (see. Accommodation of an eye ). It is mute. the ophthalmologist A. Gref widely used possibilities of an oftalmoskopiya and for the first time in detail described a number of diseases of a retina and optic nerve. Outstanding researches F also belong to the middle of 19 century. Donders who developed the doctrine about anomalies of a refraction and accommodation. It for the first time described emmetropias and hypermetropias, an astigmatism, a presbyopy as age change of accommodation, a concept of absolute and relative accommodation. During the same period for the first time there were tables for definition of visual acuity which allowed to express it in numerical values.

In 19 century in Russia there are independent departments of eye diseases, schools of sciences headed by scientists, names to-rykh were widely known and abroad. In 1805 in Moscow the first-ever specialized eye hospital opens, the cut managed the prof. F. A. Giltebrandt. In 1806 the similar clinic is created also in St. Petersburg. From 1818 to 1835 in the St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy the Russia's first independent department of eye diseases worked. In 1860 in academy O. it was allocated in an independent subject again, to-ry conducted 3. A. Jung, V. I. Dobrovolsky, L G. Bellyarminov. In I860 of the department of eye diseases opens at Moscow un-those, to-ruyu G. I. Brown, A. N. Maklakov, A. A. Kryukov headed consistently. Departments of eye diseases will be organized in Kiev (A. V. Ivanov, A. V. Hodin directed), Kharkiv (L. L. Girshman), Kazan (E. V. Adamyuk). A. V. Ivanov's researches on histology of an eye, A. N. Maklakova on an ophthalmotonometry, A. A. Kryukova by definition of visual acuity, E. V. Adamyuka on diseases of a retina use special popularity. The big contribution to development a wedge, physiology of an eye was brought by L. G. Bellyarminov, to-ry is known and as the author of the idea of creation of so-called flying eye groups for fight against trachoma and a blindness.

The organized and planned eye help in pre-revolutionary Russia was not. The essential public and medical tasks which are put forward by the advanced ophthalmologists, in particular on fight against trachoma, could not be solved because of the low economic and cultural level of an overwhelming part of the population of the country and stagnancy of government officials.

The heavy heritage was received by the country of Councils from imperial Russia: about 250 thousand blind people, St. 1 million patients with trachoma, in the country were apprx. 300 vra-whose-ophthalmologists, apprx. 2 thousand beds for eye patients, 8 eye clinics. After the Great October socialist revolution which led to full reorganization of all Soviet health care also the system of rendering the eye help radically changed. In 1920 at Narkomzdrava RSFSR created eye section, edges developed the plan of fight against a blindness and diseases of eyes. This plan provided the maximum approach of the eye help to the population of suburbs of Russia which is especially needing it, the organization of dispensary service of nek-ry groups of workers, broad mobilization on fight against mass epidemic eye diseases, first of all trachoma (see).

In the first years of existence of the Soviet state systematic fight against trachoma began. In 1927. The Soviet government adopted the resolution on this matter and by that put fight against trachoma on the level of a national objective. Special out-patient points, hospitals and research tracheomatous in-you were organized, the large number of doctors and nurses for treatment of patients with trachoma is trained. All this allowed to liquidate in rather short terms trachoma in the USSR. The significant contribution to development of a problem of trachoma and the organization of fight against it were brought by A. S. Savvaitov, V. V. Chirkovsky, etc.

In days of the Great Patriotic War effective methods of operational treatment of wounds and burns of eyes, and also their effects were offered. In the years of war, and also in the next years important data on a pathogeny and clinic of a wound process in an eye were obtained.

The ophthalmologic science constantly enriched practice with new methods of the prevention, recognition and treatment of diseases of eyes. Efforts of ophthalmologists were concentrated on first-priority development of such problems as researches in the field of morphology and physiology of an organ of sight, and also problems of glaucoma, children's ophthalmology, pathology of a retina and an optic nerve, damage of an organ of sight, viral diseases of eyes, an oftalmoonkologiya, the successful prevention of a blindness and a slabovideniye most depends on the decision to-rykh.

Large schools of the Soviet ophthalmologists are created by M. I. Averbakh, B. P. Odintsov, S. V. Kravkov, B. Item F ilatovy, V. N. Arkhangelsky, A. Ya. Samoylov, M. L. Krasnov, etc. Intensity, technical equipment and level of scientific research on the major problems O. especially increased in the last 10 — 15 years thanks to researches of groups of scientists under the leadership of M. M. Krasnov, A. P. Nesterov, To. V. Trutneva, T. I. Broshevsky, E. S. Avetisov, C. N. Fedorov, I. I. Merkulov, N. A. Puchkovskoy, A. A. Colin, etc. For studying, recognitions and treatments of diseases of eyes are more and more widely used achievements of science and technology — ultrasound (see. Ultrasonic therapy ), lasers (see), low temperatures (see. Cryosurgery ), electronic package.

Successfully the microsurgery of an eye which became the main direction of an ophthalmosurgery develops and implemented into practice. Microsurgical methods not only do more sparing and made the existing operations, but also allow to make essentially new interventions on fine structures of an eye (see. Microsurgery, in ophthalmology ). On the basis of microsurgery optiko-reconstructive operations, in particular on implantation of intraocular lenses, on the basis of use of energy of the laser and ultrasound — «beznozhevy» microsurgery actively develop.

During the studying of a pathogeny glaucomas (see) the Soviet ophthalmologists consider a role of both the central, and local mechanisms of disorder of regulation of intraocular tension. It is shown that in developing of a disease age changes in various structures and tissues of an eye, especially in the drainage device and an optic disk have essential value. New data on the hydrodynamics engineer and a hemodynamics of eyes at glaucoma are obtained. The new antihypertensives and combinations of medicines improving exchange processes in an eye at this disease are offered. The oriented microsurgeries new pathogenetic at glaucoma are developed.

Development of questions of children's ophthalmology is on a large scale carried out. Big perfection and efficiency was reached by a technique of complex pleoptokhirurgo-orthoptic treatment squint (see) and amblyopias (see). Improved techniques of operational treatment of inborn cataracts (see), ptosis (see), etc. The technique of the combined treatment is developed retinoblast (see), complex diagnosis of a keratitis and uveites.

Successfully scientific research on a problem of a refraction of an eye and short-sightedness develops. The role of the weakened accommodation in an origin of a myopia, work-related at a short distance, and possibilities of prevention of its progressing by impact on the akkomodatsionny device of an eye is revealed. The Soviet ophthalmologists possess a priority in development and wide a wedge, use of operations of strengthening of a back pole of the eyeball at the high progressing short-sightedness for the purpose of stabilization of process.

Considerable evolution was undergone by practice of treatment amotio of a retina (see), edges was replenished with a number of new operations. At diseases of a retina of vascular genesis new diagnostic methods — oftalmokhromoskopiya are widely used (see. Oftalmoskopiya ), fluorescent angiography (see) and pathogenetic treatment — use of laser coagulation, anti-sclerous to lay down. complexes, vasoprotectives, enzymes, vasodilators. Successfully the neuroophthalmology develops: use of the methods of a research developed by the Soviet oculists allowed to improve considerably topical diagnosis of the inflammatory defeats and tumors of a brain which are combined with damage of eyes.

Advanced methods are offered anatomo-rekonstruktiv-ache the surgeries at heavy damages of an organ of sight increasing efficiency of their treatment exact methods of a rentgenoloka-lization of foreign bodys in an eye are developed. New methods of laboratory diagnosis and medicamentous therapy of viral diseases of eyes are offered and implemented in practice. The arsenal of methods of objective diagnosis and complex treatment of tumors of an organ of sight extended. Are implemented into practice of operation of removal of new growths with preservation of an eyeglobe.

Genetically caused diseases of eyes are allocated; diseases, in to-rykh heredity acts in a role etiol, a factor (e.g., tapetoreti-nalny dystrophies, a retinoblastoma); diseases, to the Crimea there is a hereditary predisposition (nek-ry forms of glaucoma, short-sightedness); hereditary diseases with eye symptoms (e.g., Marfan's syndrome, at Krom is observed an incomplete dislocation of a crystalline lens, chromosomal diseases with eye manifestations).

In our country 7 scientific research institutes of eye diseases, 2 research laboratories, 100 departments of medical in-t and in-t of improvement of doctors are engaged in studying of physiology and pathology of an organ of sight, development of methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. The huge contribution to the Soviet O.'s development was made by the USSR's first Research in-t of eye diseases of Helmholtz, based in Moscow in 1935. M. I. Averbakh was the organizer and his first director. Its works about a refraction of an eye, damages of an organ of sight, amotio of a retina use special popularity. The Soviet O.'s progress is in many respects connected with activity organized in 1936. Odessa research in-that eye diseases and his director —

V. P. Filatova whose name is born now by in-t. V. P. Filatov's works had fundamental value for successful development of a problem keratoplasty (see). In are in-those under the leadership of N. A. Puchkovskaya problems of plastic surgery and treatment of various eye pathology at adults and children are developed. In 1973 in Moscow it is created In sesoyuzny research by in-t of eye diseases of M3 of the USSR (director M. M. Krasnov), the most important directions of modern O. successfully develop in Krom and to-ry plays the defining role in coordination of scientific research in the country according to this section of medicine. Scientific research institutes of eye diseases function also in Alma-Ata, Ashgabat, Baku and Ufa.

From the largest research establishments abroad it is necessary to call National eye in-t in Maryland (USA), Ying t of ophthalmology in London (Great Britain), Ying t of clinical and experimental ophthalmology in Bonn (Germany), the National center of ophthalmology in Paris (France).

Teaching a course of ophthalmology, training of doctors-of-talmologov, their specialization and improvement are carried out at departments of eye diseases of medical in-t and in-t of improvement of doctors. The first department of children's ophthalmology was created in 1935 in Leningrad pediatric state in-those. In all medical in-ta on pediatric f-takh courses of the nursery of the Lake are given.

The first original Russian textbook of O. for students — «A course of eye diseases» of A. A. Kryukov — appeared in 1892 and sustained a large number of editions. For many years the main grant for students of medical higher education institutions was «The course of eye diseases» of V. P. of Odintsovo (1936). Then textbooks «Eye Diseases» of N. A. Pletneva (1956), V. N. Arkhangelsky (1959, 1962), T. I. Broshevsky and A. A. Bochkaryova were published (1977). In 1970 the first textbook on children's ophthalmology of E. I. Kowalewski was published. In 1884 in our country it began to be published special ophthalmologic! scientific magazine «Bulletin of Ophthalmology».

In 1878 in Moscow there was the first association of oculists — the Moscow ophthalmologic circle (since 1899 — Moscow about-in oculists). It was created St. Petersburg about-in oculists later. In 1913 in Moscow there took place the I congress of the Russian oculists convened by the Moscow society. In 1936 it was created All-Union scientific about-in ophthalmologists, in a cut all enter republican ophthalmologic about-va, combining, in turn, regional and regional, and also city about-va, available in big cities. Ob-in promotes education of doctors in the spirit of high communistic consciousness and strict performance of medical ethics and a debt, promotes growth of professional qualification of doctors, bystreyshy development of achievements of medical science by them.

In its structure specialized sections on children's ophthalmology, an oftalmonevrologiya, an oftalmoendokrinologiya, eye prosthetics successfully work, etc. the I All-Union congress of ophthalmologists took place in 1926 in Moscow, II — in 1936 in Leningrad, III — in 1966 in Volgograd, IV — in 1973 in Kiev, V — in 1979 in Tashkent.

For years of the Soviet power in the country the harmonious, evidence-based system of rendering the ophthalmologic help to the population is created, edges it extends constantly and improved. The free, public qualified help to patients with diseases of eyes in full is given in eye offices of policlinics and in eye hospitals. The USSR — the first country, in a cut is created wide network of child care ophthalmologic facilities. About manifestation of special care of party and: the governments about protection of sight of the Soviet people testify resolutions of Council of ministers of the USSR «To measures for further improvement of the ophthalmologic help to the population» (1978) and «To measures for providing the population with contact lenses for correction of sight» (1976). In pursuance of these resolutions the wide program of further development of the ophthalmologic help is implemented, ophthalmologic institutions of new type — advisory policlinics, dispensary departments, the centers for microsurgery of an eye, offices and points on rendering the acute eye management are created, the network of laboratories and offices, contact correction of sight extends.

Growth and development of ophthalmologic service in the country are demonstrated by the steady growth of doctors-of-talmologov and number of hospital beds which increased in comparison with 1940 by 4 — 5 times. Ophthalmologic help to the population is given by the developed network of specialized eye offices and stationary departments.

Eye offices are created in policlinics at regional, republican, regional, city and regional-tsakh. Their tasks include holding actions for the prevention and early detection of eye diseases, rendering specialized medical aid, including dispensary observation of patients with hron, diseases of eyes, selection of patients on hospitalization, rendering the advisory help at various general diseases (an idiopathic hypertensia, a diabetes mellitus, etc.) which can be followed by pathology of eyes.

Specially created glaukomny offices with night hospitals, the microsurgical centers, offices for selection of a telescopic spectacles, laboratories of contact correction of sight, difficult eye prosthetics, offices for patients with viral and allergic diseases of eyes deal with separate problems O. Eye offices of city and regional BCs are equipped with everything sovr, the equipment necessary for rendering diagnostic and to lay down. the help to patients with various pathology of eyes. In eye offices of regional, regional, republican BCs and eye clinics there are sovr, X-ray and ultrasonic equipments, tonograf, gonioskopa, tool kits for microsurgeries.

For rendering the specialized help to country people in the republics, e.g. Kazakhstan, big across the territory, mobile eye groups are organized, to-rye together with interdistrict eye department give disease-prevention and medical and diagnostic service to the population.

Children's O. in our country since 1968 is independent service, in a cut the St. 2 thousand doctors is busy. More than 1500 nurseries of eye offices are organized. The children's ophthalmologic service in the field of protection of sight of children works together with education authorities in the preschool specialized and pro-thinned-out institutions (gardens, a day nursery gardens) and schools with broad participation of trade-union and public organizations. In the large cities boarding schools for blind and visually impaired are created. On the basis of Moscow research in-that eye diseases of Helmholtz the All-Union scientific and methodical center for recovery treatment of children with visual impairments is created.

Stationary ophthalmologic help is given in specialized eye departments of regional, republican, regional, regional and city BCs for adults and children. The number of eye beds reached 50 thousand by 1980. A fundamental unit in rendering the stationary ophthalmologic help to country people are eye departments at central, regional-tsakh. Work on their strengthening and increase in average bed power up to 60 beds is carried out. To 80% of patients come to eye departments for receiving the surgical help.

Development of an ophthalmosurgery is connected with achievements in microsurgery. In the country 10 centers for microsurgery of an eye were created, creation of the new centers, including for children is conducted. One of new forms of the ophthalmologic help is the organization of mobile specialized teams as a part of the qualified oftalmokhirurg and instrument nurses. They give surgical help to patients in the remote areas and in rural areas.

One of the major tasks in work of the ophthalmologist is the organization and carrying out routine maintenances of the population. In the country more than 80 million people annually have examination. Special attention is paid to a problem of fight against glaucoma, actions for its early identification and active overseeing by patients. In system of actions for early detection of glaucoma the main place is allocated to mass routine maintenances of the population on glaucoma, to-rye on the scope have no foreign countries, equal in practice of health care. Moscow research in-that eye diseases of Helmholtz is developed by employees system of actions for the organization of mass routine maintenances of the population on glaucoma. In the cities glaukomny offices are open, and in regional eye offices special days and reception hours of patients with glaucoma are allocated. All patients revealed as a result of mass inspection undertake on dispensary observation. Dispensary observation for patients with vascular and tubercular and allergic diseases of eyes, damages of an organ of sight, and also for had trachoma and for members of their families is made. Children with inborn pathology, inflammatory diseases, dystrophies of a retina, squint, an amblyopia, short-sightedness and other diseases of eyes are systematically observed. Correctly organized system of prevention, early identification, active treatment, and also constant medical examination and rehabilitation of patients with diseases of eyes allowed to return their considerable number to socially useful work.

In prevention of eye diseases the special place is allocated to promotion of medical knowledge among the population: to performances on radio and television, release dignity. bulletins, to publishing of popular articles in periodicals, etc.

A lot of work according to organizational methodically management of specialized offices and departments is carried out by non-staff chief and senior ophthalmologists and children's ophthalmologists of the republics, edges, areas, cities and districts.

The extremely important social and rehabilitation help to persons in rendering with a slabovideniye and a blindness work All-Union about-va blind (VOS) with its departments and branches, with the enterprises and workshops is (see. Society of blind people ). In the USSR it is paid to questions of tiflopedagogics much attention and tiflotekhnik (see) thanks to what participation of blind people in labor and public life annually grows. Thanks to joint efforts of ophthalmologists, medics of other specialties, education authorities, labor unions and the general public in the USSR the level of eye incidence, a slabovideniye and a blindness annually decreases. These indicators — the most favorable among economically developed countries of the world. Military ophthalmology The military ophthalmology is a part of the general of the Lake. It covers those problems, to-rye are of special interest for military medicine and army, and includes the following sections: development of ways of medical protection of an organ of sight of the military personnel against fighting damages, including from weapons of mass destruction; the organization of the qualified and specialized ophthalmologic help to the military personnel (and in some conditions and to members of their families) both in peace time, and in wartime; justification of the principles of military-medical examination of various specialists in a condition of an organ of sight; optimization of visual work on objects of military equipment.

The beginning of formation of military O. should be carried to the second half of 19 century when for the first time there were offers to enter quantitative assessment of visual acuity, admissible for military service, and a refraction. In Russia positions of army (district) oculists were entered into the period after the reform of 1874 consisting in replacement of a recruitment with a compulsory military service. Justification of standards of visual acuity for various military specialists, and also fight against «ophthalmias», i.e. actually with the trachoma quite widespread among soldiers belonged to their duties. In imperial army sight was normalized without possible correction by its points.

A. V. Lyubinsky last century stated the ideas about need of differentiation of requirements for visual acuity and a refraction to various military specialists, in particular on the fleet. Since 1934-point correction became obligatory for persons in need in it. The military personnel of conscription service in our country acquired the right for free providing with points.

Also initial attempts of studying of fighting pathology of an organ of sight belong to the second half of 19 century. Outstanding surgeon N. I. Pies, teaching and an ophthalmosurgery, for the first time described rational tactics at fighting wounds of eyes. In essence, he is one of founders the field Island.

After the victory of Great October socialist revolution and due to the need of strengthening of defense capability of the country in the Soviet Union the military medicine and military O. in particular begins to develop successfully. The special merit in it belonged to department of ophthalmology of the Army medical college run during this period by V. N. Dolganov. At an active role of his pupil B. L. Polyak, one of military O.'s founders in sovr, its look, at department produced the first devices for protection of eyes against damages to combat conditions, developed schemes of the organization of the ophthalmologic help in the war.

Scientific research of military ophthalmologists had significant effect on the successful solution of problems of traumatism of eyes, and also on development of an oftalmofiziologiya and the organization of the help at diseases and damages of an organ of sight. To number of the most important sovr, military O.'s problems the combined damages of an organ of sight in all of them aspects, and also the oftalmoergonomika assuming development of the actions directed to increase in efficiency of the work of military specialists connected with optimum sight belong.

The principles of assistance at stages of medical evacuation and its organization — see. Eye .


History — Magilnitsny S. G. A sketch of history of ophthalmology, Mnogotomn, the guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 1, book 1, page 13, M., 1962; Pole B. of JI. The Russia's first department of ophthalmology, To the 150 anniversary of department of ophthalmology of Army medical college, JI., 1969; Samoylov A. Ya. From history of domestic ophthalmology, M., 1949.

Textbooks, guides, reference media — Avetisov E. S. Protection of sight of children, M., 1975; it, Concomitant strabismus, M., 1977; And in e-yews E. S. and Rozenblyum Yu. 3. Optical correction of sight, M., 1981; Arkhangelsk and yv. H. Morphological bases of ophthalmologic diagnosis, M., 1960; Brovkina A. F. New growths of an orbit, M., 1974; In about-dovozov A. M. Oftalmokhromoskopiya, the Atlas, M., 1969; Eye diseases, under the editorship of T. I. Broshevsky and A. A. Bochkaryova, M., 1977; Golovin S. S. Clinical ophthalmology, t. 1, p.1 — 3, M. — Pg., 1923 — 1924; Katz Nelson JI. A. Reografiya of an eye, M., 1977; Kowalewski E. I. Children's ophthalmology, M., 1970; Kravkov S. V. An eye and its work, M. — JI., 1950; Krasnov M. M. Microsurgery of glaucomas, M., 1980; Maychuk Yu. F. Viral diseases of eyes, M., 1981; Microsurgery of an eye, under the editorship of M. M. Krasnov, M., 1976; The multivolume guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 1 — 5, M., 1959 — 1962; Nesterov A. P. Primary glaucoma, M., 1973; Nesterov A. P., Bunin A. Ya. and Katsnelson JI. A. Intraocular pressure, Physiology and pathology, M., 1974; Odintsov V. P. A course of eye diseases, M. — JI., 1936; Puchkovskaya N. A. Change of a cornea at the complicated cataracts, Kiev, 1960; Puchkovskaya N. A., Shulgin N. S. and H e p about m of box and I am V. M. Patogenez and treatment of burns of eyes and their effects, M., 1973; The Guide to eye surgery, under the editorship of M. JI. Krasnova, M., 1976; Tronas E. Zh. Glaz and neurosurgical pathology, JI., 1966; it, Diseases of a visual way, D., 1968; Friedman F. E. Ultrasound in ophthalmology, M., 1973; Der Augenarzt, hrsg. v. K. Velhagen, Bd 1 — 6, Lpz., 1969 — 1979; Current concepts in ophthalmology, ed. by E. D. H. E. Kaufman a. T. J. Zimmerman, v. 5, St Louis, 1976; System of ophthalmology, ed. by S. Duke-Elder, y. 1—15, L., 1958 — 1972.

Periodicals — Archive of ophthalmology, M., 1925 — 1932; The Messenger of ophthalmology, M., 1884 — 1917 and since 1937 (1922 — 1931 — the Russian ophthalmologic magazine; 1932 — 1936 — the Soviet messenger of ophthalmology); Questions of trachoma, Kazan, 1933 — 1937; The Medical abstract magazine, Section VIII — Ophthalmology, M., since 1960; The Ophthalmologic magazine, Odessa, since 1946; Soviet medical abstract review, Eye diseases, M., 1948 — 1956; Acta ophthalmologica, Kopenhagen, since 1924; Albrecht von Graefes Archiv f Ur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie, B., since 1973 (1854 — 1965 — Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fiir Ophthalmologie, 1965 — 1972 — Archiv fiir klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie); American Journal of Ophthalmology, St Louis, since 1884; Annali di ottalmologia e clinica oculistica, Milano, since 1871; Archiv fiir Angenheilkunde, Miinchen, since 1879 (1869 — 1878 — Archiv fiir Augen und Ohrenheikunde); Archives d’oph-talmologie et revue generale d’ophtalmolo-gie, P., since 1937 (1880 — 1936 — Archives d’oph-talmologie); Archives of Ophthalmology, Chicago, since 1869; Archivos de la Sociedad oftalmologica hispano — americana, Bar-selona, since 1942 (1901 — 1936 — Archivos de oftalmologia hispano — americanos); Bri-tich Journal of Ophthalmology, L., since 1917; Excerpta medica, Section XII — Ophthalmology, Amsterdam, since 1947; Experimental Eye Research, L., since 1961; Investigative Ophthalmology, Washington, since 1962; Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology Los Angeles, since 1964; Klinische Monatsblatter fiir Augenheilkunde, Stuttgart, since 1863; Ophthalmic Literature, L., since 1947; Ophthalmologica, Basel, since 1938 (1899 — 1937 — Zeitschift fiir Augenheikunde); Ophthalmology, Rochester, since 1978 (1906 — 1977 — Transactions of American Academy of Ophthalmology); Transactions of the American Ophthalmolo-gical Society, N. Y., since 1865; Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of United Kingdom, L., since 1880; Zentralblatt fiir die gesamte Ophthalmologie und ihre Grenzgebie-te, B., 1914 — 1943 and since 1948 (1877 — 1919 — Zentralblatt fiir practische Augenheilkunde).

Organization of the ophthalmologic help — The organization of the ophthalmologic help, under the editorship of G. A. Uldanov, etc., Alma-Ata, 1977; Bases of the organization of the stationary help in the USSR, under the editorship of A. G. Safonov and E. A. Loginova, M., 1976, bibliogr.; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, M., 1977; F a h s I. J. Vision manpower in the United States, Amer. J. publ. Hlth, v. 60, p. 1760, 1970.

Ophthalmology military — V.V.'s wolves ishilyaevv.g. The combined damages of eyes, JI., 1976; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 7, M., 1951; Pole B. of JI. Field ophthalmology, JI., 1957; it, Damages of an organ of sight, JI., 1972; Ophthalmology and otolaryngology, ed. by of Page J. Century of Coates, Washington, 1957; S z i 1 y A. u. A x e n f e 1 d T. H. Atlas der Kriegs-augenheilkunde, Stuttgart, 1917.

E. S. Avetisov; B. B. Wolves (soldier.), K. B. Trutneva (organization Ophthalmolum. help).