OPHTHALMIA (ophthalmia; grech, ophthalmos of eyes) — the general name of nek-ry inflammatory diseases of an eye. The term «ophthalmia» is applied to the name of the few eye diseases, various on the origin and a wedge, to a current (earlier this term designated all eye diseases).
Metastatic ophthalmia (a synonym a septic entophthalmia) the purulent inflammation of back department of an eyeglobe as a result of a hematogenous drift inf represents. the agent in capillaries of a retina and a vascular path of an eye (see. Entophthalmia ). In metastatic O.'s development the main role is assigned to an endogenous infection. Its most characteristic sign is availability of the purulent exudate in a vitreous giving a yellowish reflex at an oftalmoskopiya. At a severe form of a current of metastatic O. distribution of purulent process on all tissues of an eye is possible (see. Panophthalmia ). Use of antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity (Methicillinum, gentamycin, etc.) improves an outcome.
Fakogenny ophthalmia (a synonym a fakogenny iridocyclitis, a fakoanafi-laktichesky entophthalmia) arises at the perforated wounds of an eyeglobe which are followed by damage of the capsule of a crystalline lens and its opacification owing to development of a sensitization of an organism to a lenticular lot and products of their disintegration. At fakogenny O.'s emergence removal of lenticular masses is shown (see. Iridocyclitis ).
Sympathetic ophthalmia — the bilateral granulematozny uveitis developing after the getting injury of one eye (see. Sympathetic ophthalmia ).
Nodular, or nodose, ophthalmia develops mainly at hit in a conjunctival sac of hairs of nek-ry species of caterpillars, is more rare than particles of a plant origin (cotton, tobacco). Hairs are implemented into tissues of an eye and cause nodular conjunctivitis, a keratitis, an iridocyclitis. Treatment is generally symptomatic.
The term «ophthalmia» designate also reaction of an eye to intensive light sources — the ultraviolet, infrared radiation and bright beams of a visible part of a range (a so-called photo-ophthalmia). The changes in an eye arising at electric welding, steel-smelting works the increased radiation of quartz lamps carry the name of an electroophthalmia. Emergence of signs of this reaction from eyes at skiers and climbers (a snow blindness) is connected with action of the ultraviolet rays and the blinding light reflected from snow. Photochemical effect at all listed influences is shown in 6 — 12 hours in the form of sharply expressed irritation of a conjunctiva, dot erosion and bubbles of a cornea.
At emergence of these changes topical administration of solutions of Dicainum, antibiotics, peach-kernel oil or fish oil is shown. Prevention of these types of an ophthalmia consists in use of safety spectacles with light filters.
Bibliography: 3 agora E. Industrial ophthalmology, the lane with polsk., M., 1961; The Multivolume guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 3, book 2, M., 1962; Odintsov V. P. Metastatic oftalmiya, Vestn, oftalm., t. 14, No. 5, page 3, 1939; Baum J. L. The treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis, Ophthalmology, v. 85, p. 350, 1978; Pitts D. G. a. T r e d i with i T. G. The effects of ultraviolet on the eye, Amer, industr. Hyg. Ass. J., v. 32, p. 235, 1971; Gunder-s e n T., Heath P. Garron L. K. Ophthalmia nodosa, Trans. Amer. Ophthal. Soc., v. 48, p. 151, 1951.
G. M. Laryukhina.