From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ONCOLOGICAL SERVICE — the state system of institutions, activity to-rykh is directed to early detection, prevention and treatment of oncological diseases.

The dispensary principle is the basis for the organization of activity of O. of page in the USSR, to-ry provides timely diagnosis, registration of patients with for the first time the established diagnosis of a malignant new growth, performing special treatment, the subsequent medical observation, rehabilitation actions and prevention of tumors (see. Medical examination ). Onkol, patients are under dispensary observation irrespective of the term which passed from the moment of identification and treatment onkol, diseases.

From first years of the Soviet power onkol, the help to the population of the USSR was created by the state as the specialized industry of medicine that in many respects predetermined ways of its further development and improvement. In 30 — the 40th 20 century the general principles of the organization O. of page were developed and the extensive network of research in-t of oncology and X-ray radiology, onkol, clinics and offices is created. In 1945 the Narkomzdravy USSR the order «About Actions for Improvement of the Oncological Help to the Population» was issued. Expansion 126 onkol, clinics in the republics, areas, regions and the large cities of the country, 123 onkol, boarding house and 300 onkol, points was provided. In 1948 obligatory carrying out mass routine maintenances of the population for the purpose of identification tumoral and a pra to down of the left diseases is entered. Further at routine maintenances began to use widely cytologic, endoscopic methods of a research and large picture frame fluorography. In 1953 the system of universal registration of incidence and malignant tumors mortality of the population is entered into the USSR and the foundation state onkol is laid, for statistics.

The experience accumulated in the USSR on development and the analysis of materials according to incidence and malignant tumors mortality allowed to create system of the centralized account and processing statistical onkol, materials by means of the COMPUTER.

A specific place in system of the organization O. of page in the USSR is held by specialized research institutes (see). The first research X-ray radiological and oncological in-you were created in 1918 — 1920 in Leningrad, Moscow, Kharkiv and Kiev. In 1920 the oldest in the country resumed the activity Moscow in-t for treatment of tumors (nowadays Moscow research oncological in-t of P. A. Herzen of M3 of RSFSR). In 1926 in Leningrad it was organized Scientific and practical by in-t of oncology (nowadays Awards of the Labour Red Banner Research in-t of oncology of H. N. Petrova of M3 of the USSR). In post-war years the network research onkol, and X-ray radiological in-t continued to extend. In 1959 Ying t of experimental and clinical oncology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (nowadays All-Union oncological scientific center of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences) which became to one of the world's largest institutions of this kind was organized (see. research centers ). In federal republics by 1980 there were 15 research in-t of oncology and X-ray radiology, to-rye are the scientific and methodical and organizational centers O. of page in the republics. In the Latvian and Estonian SSR as a part of in-t experimental and the wedge, medicine are created sectors of oncology, to-rye are the republican centers of scientific, organizational and methodical, clinical and pedagogical work in the field of oncology.

The lake of page in the USSR incorporates 250 onkol, clinics, 3193 onkol, department and an office (the specialized bed fund makes 50,6 thousand beds, i.e. on average 2 beds on 10 000 population). The number of doctors - onko - logs in 1966 made 3705, in 1975 — 5709.

The indicators given in the table give an idea of O.'s growth by the village.

The resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR adopted in 1976 «About measures for further improvement of the oncological help to the population» laid the foundation for improvement of material and technical resources of O. of page and bystreyshy implementation in practice of achievements of science.

The main structural division onkol, networks is oncological clinic (see), to-ry provides the qualified specialized help and dispensary observation onkol, patients in the territory of the republic, edge, area, the city; the organizational and methodical management of treatment and prevention facilities concerning oncology, specialization and professional development of doctors and paramedical staff in diagnosis and treatment of patients with malignant tumors. The structure onkol, a clinic (depending on the number of the serviced population, the level and structure onkol, incidences) includes, as a rule, surgical, gynecologic, radiological, radiological, polyclinic departments and such specialized departments as urological, children's, medicinal therapy of tumors can be developed.

Onkol, departments and offices will be organized as a part of policlinics and polyclinic departments of city and central regional BCs. The main objective onkol, department and an office is the organization of the anticarcinogenic events held by institutions of the general to lay down. networks, ensuring out-patient inspection, timely treatment, account and dispensary observation onkol, patients.

Primary inspection of the patient with suspicion on onkol, a disease is in most cases made in institutions of the general to lay down. networks. The patients who are in a hospital concerning not oncological diseases undergo obligatory preventive inspection for the purpose of an exception of malignant new growths of the most often found localizations.

Hospitals of the general medical network carry out not only preventive, but also medical work in the field of oncology since apprx. 50% onkol, patients comes for treatment (preferential surgical) to institutions of the general to lay down. networks.

Obligations for medical examination of patients with pretumor diseases and carrying out mass routine maintenances of the population for the purpose of detection of tumoral and pretumor diseases are assigned to the general (unspecialized) out-patient and polyclinic network. Mass routine maintenances of the population are performed annually and cover the extensive contingents of the population; e.g., in 1976 routine maintenances in the USSR captured 109 million persons.

Carrying out routine maintenances provides identification of 10 — 11% onkol, patients from all number of persons with for the first time the established diagnosis of a malignant new growth. Routine maintenances are various and are carried out with use cytologic, endoscopic, fluorographic, thermographic and other methods of a research that allows to reveal a number asymptomatically of the developing tumoral and pretumor diseases in a preclinical stage and to provide their timely treatment, and also to create groups of persons with suspicion on onkol, a disease for further profound inspection.

See also Oncology .


Bibliography: Incidence and mortality of the population of the USSR from malignant new growths, under the editorship of A. M. Merkov, etc., JI., 1962; Napalkov N. P., etc. Malignant new growths in the USSR in 1975, Vopr, onkol., t. 24, No. 6, page 8, 1978; Preobrazhenskiy M. N., etc. Malignant new growths (Statistical materials across the USSR), M., 1974; Development of oncology in the USSR in 1971 — 1975, under the editorship of H. N. Blochina and N. P. Napalkov, page 165, M., 1977.

N. P. Napalkov.