ODESSA GROUP OF RESORTS — the seaside climatic, klimatobalneologichesky and klimatogryazevy resorts in the Ukrainian SSR located in the territory of the South Ukrainian steppes and the northern coast of the Black Sea near Odessa, throughout nearly 70 km — from Luzanovki to Karolino-Bugaz. In O.'s structure of to. Arkady's resorts, the Big Fountain, Zatoka enter (byvsh. Bugaz), Karolino-Bugaz, Kuyalnitsky, Lebedevka, Lermontovsky, Luzanovka, Small dolinsky, to them. October revolution (byvsh. Cold Beam), Seaside (byvsh. Budaki), Ser-geevka, Hadzhibeevsky, Chernomor.
From Odessa resorts Kuyalnitsky, Hadzhibeevsky (on the bank of the estuaries of the same name), it are located to the North. The October revolution, to the South — Lermontovsky, Arkady, the Big Fountain, Chernomorka, Luzanovk, Malodolinsky (also on the bank of the estuary), to the West — Seaside, located between the Black Sea and Budaksky (Shabolatsky) the estuary, Zatoka, Lebedevk (on the Burnassky estuary) and Sergeyevna (on the bank of the Budaksky estuary).
Emergence of the Odessa resorts belongs to the 20th 19 century. Played a big role in development of natural factors of resorts Odessa balneal about-in, nek-ry members to-rogo (A. A. Verigo, O. O. Mochutkovsky, E. M. Brusilovsky, S. S. Nalbandov, etc.) were founders mud cures (see) as scientific method.
Before Great October socialist revolution dirt of Kuyalnitsky and Hadzhibeev-sky estuaries was generally used. After establishment of the Soviet power bystry development of mud resorts on the basis of other Odessa estuaries and creation of climatic and klimatogryazevy resorts began. To O.'s development by to. the organization in 1928 promoted. Odessa research in-that balneology.
O.'s climate of to. moderately continental, combining features of steppe and sea climate. The proximity of the Black Sea softens winter frosts and weakens summer heat. The summer is long, very warm (average monthly temperature of July 22,1 °), days with hot and dry weather are frequent that is explained by proximity of steppes. The maximum air temperature in July can reach to 36 — 39 °. The winter is short, soft, with unstable snow cover, frequent thaw and fogs. Average monthly temperature of January — 2,8 °. The frostless season in the south of the area lasts up to 230 days. Average monthly relative humidity of air in the winter of 80%, in the summer of 50%. An amount of precipitation for a year of 400 — 450 mm. Clear sunny days in a year more than 290. Duration of sunshine in a year more than 2200 hour. The maximum of hours of sunshine fall on July.
Depending on an arrangement certain resorts of the Odessa group differ in features of a microclimate. So, in the resorts of Chernomorka, Luzanovka, Zatoka, etc., located on the bank of the high sea (unlike resorts on the bank of Odessa Bay), breezes are more often observed, it is more than sunny days. A bottom of a bay, ashore a cut the resort of Luzanovka, very flat is located, sea water well gets warm, and its temperature on 2 — 3 ° above, than in other places of the Odessa coast. Climate of the resort to them. Is closer than the October revolution to steppe (more high daytime temperature of air in the summer and colder winter, than in other resorts of the Odessa group is noted).
In resorts of the Odessa group good, preferential sandy or melkogalechny beaches. The best period for sea bathings — from June to September. The maritime air in a coastal strip is oxygenated also by aerosols of sea salts: bromine, chlorine, iodine. All this gives the chance to widely apply aero heliothalassotherapy: air and solar bathtubs, a night dream on the seashore, sea bathings and other methods of a klimatolecheniye.
The main stocks to lay down. dirt is concentrated in the estuaries (flooded with the sea mouths of the rivers) — Burnassky, Kuyalnitsky, Malodolinsky, Bu-daksky, Hadzhibeevsky, etc. the Kuyalnitsky estuary is in 8,5 km from Odessa, Hadzhibeevsky — in 15 km. Located in parallel each other, they are delimited from the sea by rerash from 1,5 to 4 km wide. On a geological structure of the valley of these estuaries are similar. The Malodolinsky estuary located between the Dniester estuary and Odessa (in 25 km to the West from the city), thanks to the channel in the tongue of sand separating the estuary from the Black Sea is turned into the sea gulf. Here the second Ilyichevsk port of Odessa is built. The Budaksky estuary is located on sowing. - zap. to the coast of the Black Sea, to the West from the Dniester estuary, it is also separated from the sea by a tongue of sand 150 m wide. It is mud-medical base of the resorts of Lebedevka and Sergeevka.
Sulphidic silt mud of the Kuyalnitsky estuary — one of the biggest in the USSR of mud fields are most known (see. therapeutic muds ). Dirt in the estuary high-quality, with high content of hydrogen sulfide (on average 0,141%). It is used for treatment in all resorts of the Odessa group, and also transported to many cities of the USSR for extra resort mud cure. Limanny dirt also serves as raw materials for production of mud drugs (Peloidinum, a peloidodistillyat, etc.). Lech. dirt of other estuaries is similar on structure and also is of great value, but operation them is a little complicated because of a contamination by deposits of sand and cockleshells.
Lech. dirt is used in the form of mud applications, mud tampons, electromud procedures, adjustable mud baths (see. Mud cure ).
The big help in development and deployment in practice of treatment in resorts application and other methods of mud cure was rendered by works of the Odessa scientific research institute of balneology. Ying volume methods of use of therapeutic mud in combination with various electroprocedures and a number of medicines are offered.
With to lay down. the purpose applies a chloride sodium-magnesium brine of estuaries with a mineralization from 126 — 170 g/l (the Kuyalnitsky estuary) to 31 — 32 g/l (Hadzhibeevsky and Budak-sky estuaries), on a cut prepare radonic, carbonic and pine needle baths. On sea water of prigotav-l also howl uglek isl ye, the l about ro dn ye, sulphidic, nitric, radonic and other bathtubs turned sour. Sea water is widely used also for irrigations, flourishes, etc.
On O. to. drinking treatment is applied by mineral waters. In the resort the Big Fountain the hloridno-guide-rokarbonatnaya sulfate-sodium mineral water with a mineralization from 3 to 7 g/l is brought to the Earth's surface. In Odessa pouring of the medical and table chloride sodium mineral water Kuyalnik containing sulfates and hydrocarbonates, sources a cut is carried out are available on the bank of the Kuyalnitsky estuary.
In resorts of the Odessa group there are numerous sanatoria for adults and children, boarding houses, rest houses, all-resort policlinics, gryaze-, water - and balneo clinics function., Basic for all sanatoria of O., to. the sanatorium Lermontovsky in the Lermontovsky resort is. At sanatorium the laboratory of radio isotope diagnosis, laboratory of the automated processing of medical information, resort policlinic and balneofizio-therapeutic department with the pool for a hydrokinesitherapy and vertical underwater extension, mud baths, etc. functions. There is a bioclimatic station.
Indications for a klimatolecheniye and an outside balneoterapiya are diseases of cardiovascular system (effects of the postponed myocarditis, the Myocardial dystrophy, a cardiosclerosis with a circulatory unefficiency not higher than I — IIA of a stage acquired and inborn heart diseases in a stage of compensation, an idiopathic hypertensia of the I—II stage), rheumatism in an inactive phase, Obliterating diseases of peripheral vessels of extremities, effects of thrombophlebitis, funkts, disturbances of a nervous system. Indications for a climatotherapy — diseases of upper respiratory tracts of nesiyetsifichesky character, tuberculosis of various localization (eyes, lungs, bones and joints, urine of secretory system). Indications for mud cure and an outside balneoterapiya — a disease of female generative organs of inflammatory character (a cervicitis, a metroendometritis, an adnexitis, secondary infertility); diseases of men's generative organs of inflammatory character (prostatitis, orchitis, vesiculitis); diseases and effects of injuries peripheral and the central nervous system (radiculitis, a polyradiculoneuritis, a plexitis, effects of the postponed arachnoiditis, cerebral palsies); diseases and effects of injuries of a musculoskeletal system (infectious nonspecific arthritises, the deforming osteoarthrosis, osteochondrosis).
Drinking treatment by the mineral waters which are available on O. to., it is applied at associated diseases of digestive organs.
Contraindications — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: Vaysfeld D. N. and d river. Resorts of Odessa, Odessa, 1976; Gorchakova G. A., and l and N and I. V. and Esipenko JI. E. Children's health resorts of the Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, 1978; The Resorts of the USSR, under the editorship of S. V. Kurashov, etc., M., 1962.
G. A. Gorchakova.