From Big Medical Encyclopedia

OBUKHOVSK HOSPITAL — one of the first municipal hospitals in Russia; it is open in 1779 in St. Petersburg. Received the name from being a number of Obukhovsky Avenue and Obukhovsky Bridge. Originally would be located in 6 wooden barracks, had 60 beds and «the house for mad». The stone building-tsy is built on A. I. Ruski's project in 1784. In 1840 and in 1866 two more stone buildings-tsy are built. By the end of 19 century the number of beds reached nearly 1000, and at the beginning of 20 century — nearly 3000.

Before Great October socialist revolution the means provided for treatment of patients were insufficient, food and conditions of accommodation of patients — extremely unsatisfactory: there were not enough medicines, a dressing material. B-tsa it was always crowded.

Mortality in it until the end of 19 century was extremely high. To the second half of 19 century the police would place in O. preferential those patients, «which directly neither to treatment, nor to livelihood had no way».

Radical reorganization of activity of O., its transformation from «a police mordant» into one of the best a wedge, institutions is connected with a name of A. A. Nechayev — the pupil S. P. Botkin. Since 1885 A. A. Nechayev was «the main doctor of a female part», and since 1890 — «the main doctor of a male part» of O. In 1922 after A. A. Nechayev's death his name would be appropriated. The manager of surgical department A. A. Troyanov was A. A. Nechayev's assistant, to-rogo I. I. Grekov replaced. Among many other prominent domestic doctors in O. the surgeon G. F. Tseydler, the infectiologist G. A. Ivashentsov, the urologist B. N. Holtsov, obstetricians-gynecologists V. A. Vastei, L. A. Krivsky, pathologists of H worked. N. Anichkov, S. S. Vail, phthisiatrician A. Ya. Shternberg, etc.

In sick hl would be treated. obr. infectious (sypny and returnable typhus, acute went. - kish. diseases, tuberculosis, etc.) and venereal (generally syphilis) diseases.

Surgical department in would be for the first time created in 1831. In 1880 — 1890 the hospital laboratory and disinfection department are founded. At the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 century there would be a specialization of departments, two sorting rooms are created (surgical and therapeutic). From the general therapeutic department a number of departments is allocated: for neurologic patients, for TB patients, for patients with acute diseases of lungs, and also infectious and cordial and renal departments. Except the basic, all-surgical, departments are created bone and tubercular, cranial (where treated also patients with diseases of ENT organs, eyes), purulent. In 1905 urology department was open.

Since the middle of 19 century O. became the center of scientific research. In new diagnostic methods and treatments would be implemented. Since 1835 N. I. Pirogov would read in O. to doctors also showed to a lecture pathoanatomical openings; since 1845 for a number of years he would be a consultant. On February 16, 1847 N. I. Pirogov made the first operation iod etherization here. On the basis of prosection Obukhovsk hospital N. I. Pirogov studied cuts of the frozen corpses that allowed it to create the atlas of topographical anatomy. In the first half of 20 century the works of doctors F. F. Hermann, V. M. Ker-niga, K. A. Maier devoted to studying of cholera, cerebrospinal meningitis, a malignant anthrax, etc. would become widely known. O. surgeons. methods of treatment of wounds of heart, an empyema of a pleura, damages of vessels, methods of operations on a pancreas were developed. One of the first in Russia A. A. Troyanov began to apply an aseptic method widely.

Lake. was one of the centers of preparation of medical shots in Russia. In 1829 in O. the school training paramedics was created. Since 1825 M. Shklyarsky would read in O. for all comers lectures on pathological and topographical anatomy. For professional development to O. doctors civil were affiliated and military to lay down. institutions; in it worked hard doctors ex-sloes. Especially an ex-sloe tour was widely adopted in 80 — the 90th 19 and at the beginning of 20 century.

In days of the Soviet power of O. it began to be used widely for training of students. In 1933 — 1936 in it clinics All-Union in-that experimental medicine were developed.

In 1932 in three-year High medical courses for paramedics and doctor assistants would be organized, in 1936 on the basis of it the 3rd Leningrad medical is open for in-t. In 1940 on base O. clinics of Naval medical academy were developed.

In days of the Great Patriotic War in O. the Naval hospital was placed. In 1956 on base O. clinics of VMA of S. M. Kirov are created.

Bibliography: Hermann F. F. A historical sketch of the Obukhovsk hospital in 100 years, SPb., 1884; Nechayev A. A. Sketches on stories of the Obukhovsk hospital, L., 1952; Senenko A. N. The Obukhovsk hospital (to the 200 anniversary), Klin, medical, t. 58, No. 2, page 111, 1980; 140 years of the Obukhovsk hospital, L., 1924.

O. B. Porembsky.