NYSTATIN (Nystatinum; synonym: Fungicidin, Moronal, Mycostatin; joint venture. B) — antifungal drug from group of amphoteric half-yen antibiotics. It is allocated from culture of an actinomyce of Streptomyces noursei in 1950 by Hazen and Brown (E. L. Hazen, R. Brown). Total formula C47H 75 017N.
H. it is water-insoluble (a soluble form sodium salt H. is); it is hygroscopic; collapses under the influence of light, it is warm, to - t, shche-l of eyes. Pier. weight apprx. 950. The N affects fungi, especially the drozhzhepodobny sorts Candida and aspergilla.
There are data that N.'s action on fungi and nek-ry protozoa is connected with formation of complexes of an antibiotic with sterols of their cellular membrane, a shaped time and leading to disturbance of membrane permeability. Bystry loss by a cell of low-molecular water-soluble substances of cytoplasm is result of it.
Resistance to N. of in vitro develops slowly, after numerous resowings. Fungi, resistant to N., have cross resistance to other antifungal antibiotics. Increases in resistance of fungi of the sort Candida to H. in the course of treatment it was not observed. Drug is badly soaked up from went. - kish. path; The N accepted inside is allocated with a stake; malotoksichen (DL 50 for mice at intraperitoneal introduction makes 20 — 26 mg/kg). Fungistaticly concentration of drug in blood serum are found at oral administration in a dose not less than 6 000 000 PIECES a day.
Use in clinic. Indications to N.'s use are damages of skin of various localization, mucous membranes, went. - kish. a path and urinogenital bodies caused by fungi of the sort Candida. H. it is recommended to the persons receiving treatment by antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity (in particular, tetracyclines) for the purpose of prevention of candidiasis, especially to children and the weakened patients. At fungus diseases of other etiology (a zymonematosis, a cryptococcosis, etc.) The N is ineffective.
Apply N. inside in the form of tablets and locally in the form of ointment, candles and globul to it. The average daily dose of N. for adults at reception it inside makes 1 500 000 — 3 000 0000 PIECES and is appointed in 3 receptions (a single dose — 500 000 — 1 000 000 PIECES), at heavy generalized candidiases would increase a daily dose to 000 000 — 8 000 000 PIECES. To children till 1 year N. appoint in a dose 100 000 — 150 000 PIECES, and from 1 year to 3 years — 250 000 PIECES 3 — 4 times a day, 3 years — 1 000 000 — 1 500 000 PIECES a day in 4 receptions are more senior. A course of treatment — 10 — 14 days. At a generalized infection and hron, recurrent candidiases conduct several courses of treatment of N. with an interval of 2 — 3 weeks.
At candidiasis of skin and mucous membranes on the struck surface apply ointment with N. (2 times a day during 2 — 4 weeks), and at candidiasis of lower parts of intestines and genitalias the candles and a globule containing N. in a dose 250 000 or 500 000 PIECES, 2 times a day, a course — are applied 10 — 14 days.
A contraindication to N.'s use is the increased individual sensitivity to it. The N is well had by patients, does not possess cumulative action. High doses of an antibiotic can sometimes cause complications from outside went. - kish. a path (nausea, vomiting, frustration of a chair), to-rye happen, as a rule, short-term.
Bibliography: Ermolyeva 3. B. Antibiotics, Interferon, Bacterial polysaccharides, page 159, M., 1965; To and Friday-kin P. N. and Sh e to l and to about in N. D. Guide to a medical mycology, M., 1978; Navashin S. M. and Fomina I. P. Reference book on antibiotics, page 258, M., 1974; Shemyakin M. M., etc. Chemistry of antibiotics, t. 1, page 91, M., 1961; Tereshin I. M of Polyene antibiotics, present and future, Tokyo, 1976.
I. M. Tereshin; V. P. Thymine (wedge.)