From Big Medical Encyclopedia

NUTS — the fruits of nek-ry plants containing a significant amount of high-calorific nutrients. Lakes are used for food and in the industrial purposes. From them toxic and medicinal substances, napr, a nuxvomica, almonds support Nek-rye (see. Medicinal plants ). Nutrition value of O. consists in the high content of fats, proteins, carbohydrates (see the table); besides, they contain a significant amount of cellulose, vitamins E and groups B, differ in the high content of potassium (650 — 800 mg 100 ml), magnesium (180 — 250 mg / 100 in ml), phosphorus (230 — 165 mg / 100 ml) and gland (1 — 6 mg / 100 ml).

Lakes are included in number of dietary food stuffs since do not show atherogenous action; they take more important the place in structure of food allowances, napr, at atherosclerosis. Lakes have lipotropic effect, and also prevent a putrefactive endointoxication from intestines. On O.'s structure are subdivided on nuciferous and kostyankoorekhoplodny.

Only the filbert and a filbert belong to the real nuciferous trees: all others treat kostyankoorekhoplodny.

The filbert and a filbert belong to the same sort Corylus: the filbert represents a wild-growing version, and a filbert a cultural form of a tree. The filbert and a filbert are eurysynusic in various climatic zones, differ in high tastes and are used preferential for direct consumption.

Beechen nuts — fruits of a beech (Fagus silvatica, Fagus orientalis). Beechen O. use for receiving edible oil, oil for the technical purposes (in soap manufacture, etc.). Beechen nuts are eaten after preliminary warming up (browning) since they contain a glycoside fagin, having toxic properties (at warming up it is inactivated and loses the toxic properties).

Pistacia vera — of l of the ode of a pistachio tree, represent a one-seeded stone fruit with two covers. They are used for receiving vegetable oil and in confectionery production, and also eaten directly.

Ynglans regia use for the use directly in a gshshcha, in production of various confectionery and for receiving nut oil. Especially high biol, walnut O. in the period of milk-wax ripeness of a kernel differ in value. They contain vitamins, enzymes and other biologically active agents. Walnut O. in this stage use for preparation of vitamin drugs and concentrates, and also jam, in Krom contents ascorbic to - you reach 9,6 mg / 100 ml.

Pine nuts (Pinus cembra). On food properties they do not concede to other O. and are widely used for the use directly in food. A large number of cedar O. goes for production of edible and technical oil.

Chestnuts food (Castanea vesca). They are used in shpets in the raw or after cooking and a browning, and also used in the confectionery industry and in production of substitutes of coffee. In comparison with other O. they contain a little protein and fat, but much more carbohydrates.

Amygdalus communis. It is presented by two types — sweet and bitter. Bitter almonds contain a glycoside the dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside having toxic properties. Content of dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside in bitter almonds makes 2,5 — 3,5%. At consumption of bitter almonds poisonings are possible. Bitter almonds are used in the perfumery industry and for preparation of the sweet-almond oil used in medicine. Sweet almonds do not contain dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside. It is eaten in a fresh, salty and fried look, and also used in the confectionery industry for production of marzipans, almond stuffings, macaroon goods and cakes.

Tung nuts. — fruits of a tree of a tung tree this (Aliirites). spurge family. From them receive the tung (wood) oil used for production of high-quality paints and varnishes of special durability. For the food purposes these O. and the oil received from them do not use because of toxicity and off-flavor.

Coconuts — fruits of a coconut palm tree (Cocus nucifera) — the largest O., weighing up to several kilograms. Inside O. is the liquid called by coconut milk, to-ruyu use in a fresh gshshcha or after fermentation. The copra (the dried-up oily endosperm of coconut O.) containing 5,8% of water, 16,5% of carbohydrates, 8,9% of protein apprx. 67% of oil, is used for the food and technical purposes (e.g., in production of toilet soap). Piririma oil is widely applied in the margaric industry.

The peanut (earth O.) is also carried to O. Osobennostyyu of this plant education from an ovary of special body — hypoodds is, to-ry, expanding, bends down down and earths the developing fruit (from here — earth O.). Kernels of a peanut are eaten, and also used for receiving oil. On the food purposes there is an oil received by cold molding. The cake received during the processing of a peanut widely is used in production of halvah and other confectionery, and also for production of a substitute of chocolate and cocoa. From arakhisny flour prepare various products for patients with diabetes.

At the wrong storage of O. are exposed to bystry damage. At the same time temperature and air humidity in storage has crucial importance. At high humidity in storages O. can grow mouldy and rot. Consumption of such O. can lead to developing of a serious poisoning — aflatokepkoz (see. Mikotoksikoza ). O.' humidity is of great importance for quality preservation, edges shall not exceed 8 — 10%.

Table. Chemical composition of some nuts and their energy value

Bibliography: Reysler A. V. Hygiene of food, page 428, M., 1952; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. of Tsere^ of a vitinov, t. 1 — 4, M., 1949; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, page 42, 208, M., 1976.

K. S. Petrovsky.